Objective: • Describe four causes of American entry into World War I (1914-1919). • Do Now (pgs. 306-307) Define • Alliances • Lusitania • Zimmerman Telegram
The First World War: • What? • When? • War involving nearly all the nations of the world • 1914-1918
Causes of World War I (MANIA) • Militarism: policy of building a large arsenal of weapons. • Alliances: agreements between nations to aid and protect each other. • Nationalism: sense of pride in one’s country. • Imperialism: when one country colonizes another for their wealth, natural resources and markets. • Assassination: murder of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The First World War: • Why? Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria and his Wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg one hour before their deaths, June 28, 1914
The First World War: • Who? Central Powers: Allies: Germany Austria-Hungary Russia France Great Britain Italy Japan United States (1917)
ALLIES FRANCE UNITED KINGDOM (AND ALL OF HER COLONIES) ITALY RUSSIA JAPAN ROMANIA SERBIA GREECE PORTUGAL THE WAR BEGAN WITH THE ALLIES VERSUS THE CENTRAL POWERS AND SIX NEUTRAL NATIONS NEUTRAL NATIONS SPAIN SWITZERLAND NORWAY SWEDEN BELGIUM DENMARK CENTRAL POWERS AUSTRIA-HUNGARY GERMANY BULGARIA TURKEY
The First World War: • Where?
World War I (1914-1919) • When WWI first broke out, President Wilson tried to keep the United States neutral. • The United States entered the war in 1917 after Germany denied the U.S. freedom of the seas by sinking America’s commercial ships (Germany’s policy of Unrestricted Submarine Warfare.)
Why did it take so long for America to get involved in the war? America was isolationist
Which side should the US pick? Central Powers: Allies: • 11 million German-Americans • Irish-Americans hated Great Britain • Close cultural ties • Shared transatlantic cables (so censored stories) • Big business loaned much $ to allies US Exports to both sides:
American Neutrality · Officially, the U.S. was a neutral country. · However, we traded food, weapons, oil, steel, and other goods far more with the Allied Powers than with the Central Powers.
Long-term causes of American involvement in WWI • Sympathy for Great Britain and France who were suffering staggering losses between 1914-1916. • A German victory in WWI threatened the stability of Europe and control of the Atlantic Ocean, • The sinking of the Lusitania, a British passenger ship that had 128 American citizens on board (1915).
Causes of American involvement in WWI (1917) • Germany’s policy of unrestricted submarine warfareresulted in the sinking of American ships and jeopardized America’s interests. • “The world must be made safe fordemocracy:”A famous quotation by President Wilson that was used to justify American entry into WWI. • The Zimmerman Telegram: a letter from Germany to Mexico (intercepted by the British), that urged Mexico to declare war on the United States. If victorious, Mexico would regain all of the land that it had lost in the Mexican/American War.
SUBMARINES, CALLED “U-BOATS” BY THE GERMANS, WERE USED TO SINK SUPPLY SHIPS
· German submarines, called U-boats, torpedoed enemy ships and neutral ships trading with the enemy.
· In 1915, a German submarine torpedoed the Lusitania, a British passenger ship, killing approximately 1,200 people, including 128 Americans.
ALTHOUGH THIS EVENT ANGERED MANY AMERICANS, THE U.S. DID NOT JOIN THE WAR FOR 2 MORE YEARS
ZIMMERMANN NOTE (1917) On the first of February we intend to begin submarine warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement. . . . You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916
WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR APRIL 2, 1917 “THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY. ITS PEACE MUST BE PLANTED UPON THE TESTED FOUNDATIONS OF POLITICAL LIBERTY. WE HAVE NO SELFISH ENDS TO SERVE. WE DESIRE NO CONQUEST, NO DOMINION. WE SEEK NO INDEMNITIES FOR OURSELVES, NO MATERIAL COMPENSATION FOR THE SACRIFICES WE SHALL FREELY MAKE.”
Do Later: • Pg. 292 #1 and #2.
WHY DID THE U.S. ULTIMATELY JOIN THE WAR ON THE SIDE OF THE ALLIES? • THE U.S. HAD MORE MONEY INVESTED IN ENGLAND THAN GERMANY • PART OF THE MOTIVATION WAS RACIAL: THE PREFERENCE FOR BRITISH ANGLO-SAXONS OVER GERMAN TEUTONICS • THE ELITE IN THE EAST HAD NEVER SEVERED TIES WITH ENGLAND • UNCERTAINTY OF U.S. INTERESTS IN A GERMAN-DOMINATED EUROPE • FRANCE WAS A FRIEND SINCE THE U.S. WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE • THE U.S. WANTED TO HELP BRITAIN BECAUSE THE GOVERNMENT WAS CLOSEST TO A DEMOCRACY • WILSON’S MORAL DIPLOMACY POLICY • BRITISH PROPAGANDA • LUSITANIA • ZIMMERMAN NOTE
Objective: • Describe three changes in American society that occurred during WWI. • Do Now Define (pgs. 306-307) • Draft • Armistice • Schenck v. United States
Changes in American society brought on by WWI • Draft: All males between the ages of 21-30 were required to register. Bt the end of the war, 2.8 million soldiers were drafted. • New jobs for women and African Americans: When the men went off to fight, women and minorities worked in factories. As a result, African Americans began leaving the south and settling in the major cities (Great Migration andHarlem Renaissance). • Espionage and Sedition Acts: Laws that made it a crime to speak out against the war and hinder the draft.
What is Propaganda? • A way of manipulating people using images and words to achieve a desired outcome. • Propaganda clouds reality and interferes with clear and honest thinking. • During wartime, propaganda is designed to provide a focus for our mistrust and hatred and to dehumanize the enemy.
World War I – The Homefront Selective Service Act (1917) – required all men from the age of 21 to 30 to register for the military draft · By 1918, approximately 4 million Americans joined the armed forces.
1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.
Women Used In Recruitment Hello, Big Boy!
Committee on Public Information • Formed by President Wilson, headed by George Creel • Established voluntary censorship of the press and created a propaganda campaign for the country’s support of WWI. • Portrayed the Germans as barbaric and urged all citizens to spy on neighbors with foreign names. • Encouraged reporting of suspicious activities to the Justice Department.
FOOD ADMINISTRATION • HEADED BY FUTURE PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER, NEVER IMPOSED SPECIFIC RATIONS BUT RELIED UPON VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION • RATION: TO LIMIT THE AMOUNT OF FOOD OR RESOURCES PEOPLE CAN USE • FAMOUS SLOGAN “FOOD WILL WIN THE WAR – DON’T WASTE IT” • THE U.S. HAD TO PROVIDE FOOD FOR ITS OWN CITIZENS AS WELL AS THE ALLIED COUNTRIES
NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD • HEADED BY EX-PRESIDENT TAFT WAS FORMED TO UNIFY LABOR POLICIES AND SERVED AS THE COURT FOR LABOR DISPUTES • PRESIDENT WILSON HOPED TO PREVENT STRIKES AS THEY COULD STOP PRODUCTION OF MUCH NEEDED GOODS FOR THE WAR • DURING THE WAR THERE WERE OVER 6,000 STRIKES, AND THE NWLB HEARD OVER 1,000 CASES • THE NWLB ALSO WORKED TO IMPROVE WORKING CONDITIONS: AN EIGHT-HOUR WORKDAY WAS ESTABLISHED IN SOME AREAS, AND STANDARDS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN WERE ESTABLISHED
Paying for the War • The war cost the United States approximately 34 billion dollars. • The war, in part, was financed by the sale of Liberty and Victory Bonds. • The Graduated Income Tax also provided much needed revenue for the government