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A PowerPoint Presentation Package to Accompany. Applied Statistics in Business & Economics, 4 th edition David P. Doane and Lori E. Seward. Prepared by Lloyd R. Jaisingh . Chapter Contents 1.1 What is Statistics? 1.2 Why Study Statistics? 1.3 Uses of Statistics

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## Applied Statistics in Business & Economics, 4 th edition David P. Doane and Lori E. Seward

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**A PowerPoint Presentation Package to Accompany**Applied Statistics in Business & Economics, 4th edition David P. Doane and Lori E. Seward Prepared by Lloyd R. Jaisingh**Chapter Contents**1.1 What is Statistics? 1.2 Why Study Statistics? 1.3 Uses of Statistics 1.4 Statistical Challenges 1.5 Critical Thinking Overview of Statistics Chapter 1**Chapter Learning Objectives**LO1-1:Define statistics and explain some of its uses in business. LO1-2:List reasons for a business student to study statistics. LO1-3:State the common challenges facing business professionals using statistics. LO1-4:List and explain common statistical pitfalls. Overview of Statistics Chapter 1**1.1 What is Statistics?**LO1-1 Chapter 1 LO1-1:Define statistics and explain some of its uses in business. • Statisticsis the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting data. • Astatisticis a single measure (number) used to summarize a sample data set; for example, the average height of students in a university. 1-4**1.1 What is Statistics?**LO1-1 Chapter 1 • For the height of students, a graduation gown manufacturer may need to know the average height for the length of the gowns or an architect may need to know the maximum height to design the height of the doorways of the classrooms. 1-5**Knowing statistics will make you a better consumer of other**people's data. You should know enough to handle everyday data problems, to feel confident that others cannot deceive you with spurious arguments, and to know when you've reached the limits of your expertise. 1.2 Why Study Statistics? LO1-2 Chapter 1 LO1-2: List reasons for a business student to study statistics.**Statistical knowledge gives a company a competitive**advantage against organizations that cannot understand their internal or external market data. Mastery of basic statistics gives an individual manager a competitive advantage as one works one’s way through the promotion process, or when one moves to a new employer. Here are some reasons to study statistics. 1.2 Why Study Statistics? LO1-2 Chapter 1**1.2 Why Study Statistics?**LO1-2 Chapter 1 Communication Computer Skills Understanding the language of statistics facilitates communication and improves problem solving. The use of spreadsheets for data analysis and word processors or presentation software for reports improves upon your existing skills. 1-8**1.2 Why Study Statistics?**LO1-2 Chapter 1 Information Management Technical Literacy Statistics helps summarize small and large amounts of data and reveal underlying relationships. Career opportunities are in growth industries propelled by advanced technology. The use of statistical software increases your technical literacy. 1-9**1.2 Why Study Statistics?**LO1-2 Chapter 1 Process Improvement Statistics helps firms oversee their suppliers, monitor their internal operations, and identify problems. 1-10**1.3 Uses of Statistics**Chapter 1 Two primary kinds of statistics: Descriptive statistics– the collection, organization, presentation, and summary of data. Inferential statistics– generalizing from a sample to a population, estimating unknown parameters, drawing conclusions, making decisions. 1-11**1.3 Uses of Statistics**LO1-1 Chapter 1 1-12**1.3 Uses of Statistics**LO1-1 Chapter 1 Auditing Marketing Sample from over 12,000 invoices to estimate the proportion of incorrectly paid invoices. Identify likely repeat customers for Amazon.com and suggest co-marketing opportunities based on a database of 5 million Internet purchases. 1-13**1.3 Uses of Statistics**LO1-1 Chapter 1 Health Care Quality Improvement Evaluate 100 incoming patients using a 42-item physical and mental assessment questionnaire. Initiate a triple inspection program, setting penalties for workers who produce poor-quality output. 1-14**1.3 Uses of Statistics**LO1-1 Chapter 1 Purchasing Medicine Determine the defect rate of a shipment and whether that rate has changed significantly over time. Determine whether a new drug is really better than the placebo or if the difference is due to chance. 1-15**1.3 Uses of Statistics**LO1-1 Chapter 1 Operations Management Product Warranty Manage inventory by forecasting consumer demand. Determine the average dollar cost of engine warranty claims on a new hybrid engine. 1-16**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 LO1-3: State the common challenges facing business professionals using statistics. • Is technically current (e.g., software-wise). • Communicates well. • Is proactive. The Ideal Data Analyst 1-17**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 The Ideal Data Analyst • Has a broad outlook. • Is flexible. • Focuses on the main problem. • Meets deadlines 1-18**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 The Ideal Data Analyst • Knows his/her limitations and is willing to ask for help. • Can deal with imperfect information. • Has professional integrity. 1-19**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 Imperfect Data and Practical Constraints State any assumptions and limitations and use generally accepted statistical tests to detect unusual data points or to deal with missing data. You will face constraints on the type and quality of data you can collect. 1-20**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 Business Ethics • Some broad ethical responsibilities of business are • Treating customers in a fair and honest manner. • Complying with laws that prohibit discrimination. • Ensuring that products and services meet safety regulations. 1-21**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 Business Ethics • Some broad ethical responsibilities of business are (continued) • Standing behind warranties. • Advertising in a factual and informative manner. • Encouraging employees to ask questions and voice concerns about the company’s business practices. • Being responsible for accurately reporting information to management. 1-22**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 Upholding Ethical Standards • Ethical standards for the data analyst: • Know and follow accepted procedures. • Maintain data integrity. • Carry out accurate calculations. 1-23**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 Upholding Ethical Standards • Ethical standards for the data analyst (continued): • Report procedures faithfully. • Protect confidential information. • Cite sources. • Acknowledge sources of financial support. 1-24**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 Using Consultants Hire consultants at the beginning of the project, when your team lacks certain skills or when an unbiased or informed view is needed. 1-25**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 Communicating with Numbers • Numbers have meaning only when communicated in the context of a certain situation. • Presentation should be such that managers will quickly understand the information they need to use in order to make good decisions. 1-26**1.4 Statistical Challenges**LO1-3 Chapter 1 Skills Needed for Success in Business (Table 1.1) 1-27**1.5 Critical Thinking**Chapter 1 • Statistics is an essential part of critical thinkingbecause it allows us to test an idea against empirical evidence. • Empirical data represent data collected through observation and experiments. • Statistical tools are used to compare prior ideas with empirical data, but pitfalls do occur. 1-28**1.5 Critical Thinking**LO1-4 Chapter 1 Pitfall 1: Making Conclusions about a Large Population from a Small Sample LO1-4: List and explain common statistical pitfalls. Be careful about making generalizations from small samples (e.g., a group of 10 patients who showed improvement). 1-29**1.5 Critical Thinking**LO1-4 Chapter 1 Pitfall 2: Making Conclusions from Nonrandom Samples Be careful about making generalizations from small samples and from retrospective studies of special groups (e.g., studying heart attack patients without defining matched control group). 1-30**1.5 Critical Thinking**LO1-4 Chapter 1 Pitfall 3: Conclusions From Rare Events Pitfall 4: Using Poor Survey Methods Be careful about drawing strong inferences from events that are not surprising when looking at the entire population (e.g., winning the lottery). Be careful about using poor sampling methods or vaguely worded questions (e.g., anonymous survey or quiz). 1-31**1.5 Critical Thinking**LO1-4 Chapter 1 Pitfall 5: Assuming a Causal Link Based on Observations Be careful about drawing conclusions when no cause-and-effect link exists (e.g., most shark attacks occur between 12 p.m. and 2 p.m.). 1-32**1.5 Critical Thinking**LO1-4 Chapter 1 Pitfall 6: Generalization to Individuals from Observations about Groups Avoid reading too much into statistical generalizations (e.g., men are taller than women). 1-33**1.5 Critical Thinking**LO1-4 Chapter 1 Pitfall 7: Unconscious Bias Pitfall 8: Significance versus Importance Be careful about unconsciously or subtly allowing bias to color handling of data (e.g., heart disease in men vs. women). Statistically significant effects may lack practical importance (e.g., Austrian military recruits born in the spring average 0.6 cm taller than those born in the fall). 1-34

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