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Michelle Cruz Priscilla Munoz Maram Nazer

Michelle Cruz Priscilla Munoz Maram Nazer

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Michelle Cruz Priscilla Munoz Maram Nazer

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  1. Emotions:Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416. Michelle Cruz Priscilla Munoz Maram Nazer

  2. YouTube Video • Differences between men and women [emotions] Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.

  3. Facial Expressions • Elements of facial decoding are believed to have evolved from the need to be able to predict another individual’s emotional state and determine their future actions. • Universal Facial Expressions: • Happiness • Sadness • Anger • Fear • Disgust • Surprise Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.

  4. Purpose of Article • To explore men and women’s evolved mechanisms for emotion facial decoding. • To focus on sex differences in identifying emotions to be able to provide an evolutionary perspective to the female advantage of recognizing emotion facial expressions. Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.

  5. Hypotheses • Child-Rearing Hypothesis: Female superiority in detecting facial expressions may be due to the fact that women are natural “caretakers” and are more likely to raise healthy children. • “Attachment Promotion” • A mother’s innate responsibility to tend to her child’s emotions. • “Fitness Threat” • Women are better at recognizing negative emotions in facial expressions. • Negative emotions signal a threat in the environment. • Only a caretaker can aid in protecting them against emotional harm. Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.

  6. Method • Participants: 31 men and 31 women • Four tasks measured reaction time and accuracy in facial recognition: • Facial matching • Facial identity • Facial emotion • Pattern matching Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.

  7. Method (cont.) • Face labeling task used to assess if participants accurately recognized the emotions portrayed on the faces • Verbally provide name for the emotion on the faces on the response card • Reaction times were recorded and accuracy of decoding facial expressions indicated the sex differences in emotion facial recognition. Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.

  8. Example of Response Card (From Hampson, E. et al., 2006, p. 405) Fig. 1. Example of response card layout (Facial Emotion condition) Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.

  9. Results • Accuracy of decoding facial expressions was similar between men and women. • Only difference was when the participants were presented with negative emotions. • Large sex difference in reaction time of decoding facial expressions. • Females were faster at detecting neutral and negative facial expressions. Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.

  10. RT for Positive vs. Negative Emotions (From Hampson, E. et al., 2006, pg. 410) Fig. 3. Analysis of the positive and negative composite scores revealed that the sex difference in RT was larger for negative emotions than for positive emotions. Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.

  11. Critical Review • Informative Points • Female superiority in detecting negative emotions (evidence from RT only) • The results encouraged further research to support the fitness threat interpretation of child-rearing theory • No significant sex difference in accuracy of recognition of facial emotions • Weaknesses • Results cannot be generalized to the whole population due to a small sample size • The study only tested participants with adult faces • Emotion decoding based on interpretation of participants (no standard definitions of emotions) Hampson, E., van Anders, S. M., & Mullin, L. I. (2006). A female advantage in the recognition of emotional facial expressions: test of an evolutionary hypothesis. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27, 401-416.