Chapter 24 The West Between the Wars 1919 – 1939
Key Events • Europe faced severe economic problems after World War I, including inflation and the Great Depression • Dictatorial regimes began to spread in Italy, Germany, and across eastern Europe • The uncertainties and disillusionment of the times were reflected in the art and literature of the 1920s and 1930s
The Impact Today • The current debate over the federal government’s role in local affairs and social problems developed in part from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s solution to the Great Depression • Automobiles, motion pictures, and radios transformed the ways in which people lived during the 1920s and 1930s and still impact how we live our lives today
Chapter Preview “The Great Depression”
Section 1 The Futile Search for Stability
Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security • The peace settlements had left many nations unhappy • Border disputes were ongoing • Germans vowed to revise the Treaty of Versailles • The League of Nations was not very successful in maintaining peace (The U.S. was not a member) • Most Americans did not wish to be involved in European affairs
Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security (Continued) • French Demands – • It was determined that Germany owed 33 billion U.S. dollars in war reparations, payable in annual installments. • First payment was made in 1921, However beginning in 1922 the German government was unable to pay anymore due to financial problems. • France sent troops to occupy the Ruhr Valley. • France planned to collect reparations by operating and using the Ruhr mines and factories.
Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security (Continued) • Inflation in Germany – • Due to the excess printing of money, Inflation was drastic in Germany in 1923 • In August, 1924 “The Dawes Plan” was introduced as a new plan for Germany to pay reparations • American began to invest in Europe, which provided a brief period of European prosperity from 1924 – 1929.
Uneasy Peace, Uncertain Security (Continued) • The Treaty of Locarno – Signed in 1925, guaranteed Germany’s new western borders with France and Belgium • 63 nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact. These nations pledged “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy”. • Nations were unwilling to reduce their military forces.
The Great Depression • Causes: • A series of downturns in the economies of individual nations in the second half of the 1920’s • International financial crisis involving the U.S. stock market • Effects: • Trade was slowing down • Industrial production was declining • Unemployment was rising
Responses to the Depression • During 1932 (Worst year of Depression) • Great Britain – 25% unemployment • Germany – 40% unemployment (6 million Germans) • Unemployed and homeless filled the streets • During the Great Depression there was increased government involvement in the economy • The Great Depression led masses of people to follow political leaders who offered simple solutions in return for dictatorial power.
Democratic States After the War • Germany – Hit hardest by the Great Depression. The depression paved the way for fear and the rise of extremist parties. • France – Had become the strongest power in Europe. The French New Deal gave workers the right to collective bargaining. • Great Britain – A new government, led by the Conservatives, claimed credit for bringing Britain out of the worst stages of the depression.
The United States After the War • In 1933, 12 million Americans were unemployed • President Roosevelt Introduces the New Deal: • Increased program of public works (Worked at building bridges, roads, post offices, and airports. • Began the U.S. welfare system • 1n 1935, the Social Security Act created a system of old-age pensions and unemployment insurance • Although helpful, the New Deal did not solve the unemployment problems of the Great Depression.
Section 2 The Rise of Dictatorial Regimes
The Rise of Dictators • Short-lived democracy in Europe after 1919. (By 1939 only France and Great Britain remained democratic). • Italy, Soviet Union, Germany (Among others) adopted dictatorships. • New form of dictatorship evolves; totalitarian state. (achieved through mass propaganda).
Fascism in Italy • Benito Mussolini establishes a fascism movement in Italy. • Fascism glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for a strong central government led by a dictator. • By 1922, Mussolini’s movement was growing quickly. The middle-class fear of socialism, communism, and disorder made the Fascists attractive.
“IL DUCE” • In 1922, Mussolini was named prime minister of Italy. • In 1926, the Fascists outlawed all other political parties in Italy and established a secret police. By the end of the year, Mussolini ruled Italy as Il Duce – “The Leader”. • Mussolini believed that Italy should be a totalitarian state, where the Fascist government controlled every aspect of society.
A New Era in the Soviet Union • Following WWI, Lenin became the communist leader in Russia, which then became the USSR. (1922) • Lenin abandoned war communism in favor of his New Economic Policy (NEP). • Retail stores as well as small industries (fewer then 20 workers) could be privately owned. Soviet agricultural production climbed significantly. • Overall the NEP saved the Soviet Union from complete economic disaster.
The Rise of Stalin • Lenin dies in 1924 • A struggle for power begins with Stalin eventually taking control after competing with fellow communist and rival, Leon Trotsky. • By 1929 Stalin had established a powerful dictatorship. • Stalin gets rid of Lenin’s NEP and creates a series of “Five-year Plans” which will convert the USSR into an industrial country.
The “Five-year Plans” • Due to industrialization, millions of workers and their families lived in awful conditions. • Wages decreased by 43% from 1928 to 1940. • Strict laws limited where workers could move. • At the same time, collectivization took place in agriculture.
Costs of Stalin’s Programs • During collectivization, the hoarding of food and the slaughter of livestock produced widespread famine. • Stalin killed off (purged) most, if not all, of his opposition. He taught hard work, duty to country, and discipline. • An estimated 8 million Russians were arrested by Stalin’s people. Millions were sent to forced labor camps in Siberia, from which they never returned. Others were executed.
Eastern Europe and Spain • Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary adopted parliamentary systems. Most of these were soon replaced by authoritarian regimes. • Fascism takes root in Spain in 1936, in a civil war against the democratic government. Led by Francisco Franco, the Fascists win the war in 1939, with help from Hitler’s Germany, and Mussolini’s Italy. The three fascist countries form an alliance.
Section 3 Hitler and Nazi Germany
Hitler and His Views • Hitler was born in Austria in 1889. • At the core of Hitler’s ideas was racism, especially anti-Semitism. • At the end of WWI Hitler remained in Germany and entered politics in 1919. • By the summer of 1921 he had taken control of the “National Socialist German Workers’ Party” (Nazi for short)
Prison and Mein Kampf • After holding an uprising against the government in 1923, Hitler was sentenced to prison. • During prison he wrote Mein Kampf • Hitler emphasized the right of superior nations to lebensraum (LAY buhnz ROWM) – living space – through expansion. • Hitler also believed superior individuals should gain authoritarian leadership over the masses.
Rise of Nazism • While in prison, Hitler realized that the Nazis would have to attain power legally. • Hitler leads the Nazi party in the 1920’s and early 1930’s • By 1932, there are over 800,000 members in the Nazi party. • Germany’s economic difficulties were a crucial factor in the Nazi rise to power.
Victory of Nazism • In 1933 President Hindenburg, under pressure, agreed to allow Hitler to become chancellor and create a new government. • In March, 1933 the Enabling Act was passed thus giving Hitler the power of a dictator. • Concentration camps were set up for those that opposed the new regime. • All political parties, except Nazis were abolished. Hitler was the sole ruler of a totalitarian state.
The Nazi State, 1933 - 1939 • Nazis thought the Germans were the true descendants of the Romans and Greeks and would create another empire like the one ruled by the ancient Romans. • It was Hitler’s goal to create a Third Reich • Terror and repression were widely used • The SS (Schutzstaffeln or “Guard Squadrons”) controlled all of the police forces. • Terror included: secret police, criminal police, concentration camps, and later execution squads and death camps.
The Nazi State, 1933 – 1939 (Continued) • Hitler used public works projects to put people back to work and end the depression. • The significant decrease in unemployment and improvement in the economy was an important factor in getting many Germans to accept Hitler and the Nazis. • Hitler and the Nazis continued to enforce new Anti-Semitic policies.
Section 4 Cultural and Intellectual Trends
Mass Culture: Radio and Movies • New Inventions: • Mass Production of Radios (1921/1922) • Motion Pictures (1890’s) • Full Length Motion Pictures (Shortly before WWI) • All of the above could be and were used for political purposes • Radio propaganda was effectively used by Hitler to reach the masses.
More Goods, More Leisure • After WWI, the assembly line and mass production dominated industry • Automobiles begin wide spread use • By 1920 the 8 hour work day had been established (provided additional leisure time) • Professional sporting events • Travel / Vacation resorts • Concerts / Operas / Films / Guided Tours
Chapter 24 The West Between the Wars Wrap Up and Review
Key Events (Re-visited) • Europe faced severe economic problems after World War I, including inflation and the Great Depression • Dictatorial regimes began to spread in Italy, Germany, and across eastern Europe • The uncertainties and disillusionment of the times were reflected in the art and literature of the 1920s and 1930s
The Impact Today (Re-visited) • The current debate over the federal government’s role in local affairs and social problems developed in part from Franklin D. Roosevelt’s solution to the Great Depression • Automobiles, motion pictures, and radios transformed the ways in which people lived during the 1920s and 1930s and still impact how we live our lives today