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Designing a Healthful Diet

Designing a Healthful Diet

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Designing a Healthful Diet

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  1. 2 Designing a Healthful Diet

  2. A Healthful Diet • A healthful diet provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients • A healthful diet is: • Adequate • Moderate • Balanced • Varied

  3. A Healthful Diet Is Adequate • An adequate diet provides enough energy, nutrients, fiber, and vitamins to maintain a person’s health • Undernutritionoccurs if a person’s diet contains inadequate levels of several nutrients for a long period of time

  4. A Healthful Diet Is Moderate • Moderation refers to eating any foods in moderate amounts—not too much and not too little

  5. A Healthful Diet Is Balanced • A balanced diet contains the combinations of foods that provide the proper proportions of nutrients

  6. A Healthful Diet Is Varied • Variety refers to eating many different foods from the different food groups on a regular basis

  7. Designing a Healthful Diet • The tools for designing a healthful diet include: • Food labels • Dietary Guidelines for Americans • MyPyramid

  8. Food Labels The FDA requires food labels on most products. These labels must include: • A statement of identity • Net contents of the package • Ingredient list • Manufacturer’s name and address • Nutrition information (Nutrition Facts Panel) Reading Labels

  9. Nutrition Facts Panel • Learn more about an individual food • Compare one food with another

  10. Nutrition Facts Panel • Serving size and servings per container • Serving sizes are based on the amounts people typically eat for each food • Calories and calories from fat per serving • This information can be used to determine if a product is relatively high in fat

  11. Nutrition Facts Panel • List of nutrients • Fat (total, saturated, trans) • Cholesterol • Sodium • Fiber • Some vitamins and minerals

  12. Nutrition Facts Panel • Percent Daily Values (%DVs) • How much a serving of food contributes to your overall intake of the listed nutrients • Compare %DV between foods for nutrients • Less than 5% DV of a nutrient is considered low • More than 20% DV of a nutrient is considered high

  13. Nutrition Facts Panel • Footnote • %DV is based on a 2,000-calorie diet • Table illustrates the difference between a 2,000-calorie and 2,500-calorie diet • May not be present on all food labels ABC Video Food Labels and Portion Size

  14. Nutrition Facts Panel • Nutrient and health claims • Must meet FDA-approved definitions • Example: “low in sodium” indicates that the particular food contains 140 mg or less of sodium per serving • Structure–function claims • Made without FDA approval, proof, or guarantees that any benefits are true • Example: “Improves memory”

  15. Dietary Guidelines • Dietary Guidelines for Americans • Developed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services • General advice for healthful diet and lifestyle • Updated every 5 years • Most recent update was in 2005

  16. Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs • Key Recommendations • Consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods • Choose foods that are limited in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, salt, and alcohol • Balanced eating patterns • USDA Food Guide (MyPyramid) • DASH eating plan

  17. Weight Management • Overweight or obesity increases the risk for many chronic diseases: • Heart disease, diabetes, stroke, some cancers • Key recommendations: • Maintain body weight within healthful range by balancing calories from foods and beverages with calories expended • Prevent weight gain—make small decreases in calorie intake and increase physical activity

  18. Physical Activity • Key recommendations: • Regular physical activities promote health, psychological well-being, and healthful weight • Physical fitness includes cardiovascular conditioning, stretching exercises for flexibility, and resistance exercise • 30 minutes daily minimum of moderate activity most days of the week • 60–90 min./day on most days of the week to prevent weight gain or promote weight loss

  19. Food Groups to Encourage • A variety of fruits and vegetables • Key nutrients: vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, and potassium • Sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables each day while staying within energy needs • Choose a variety from five vegetable subgroups • 3 or more ounces/day of whole-grain foods • 3 cups/day of low-fat or fat-free milk or equivalent

  20. Fats • Essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins • Energy dense • Diets high in saturated fats, trans fats, and cholesterol increase risk for heart disease • Key recommendations: • Less than 10% of calories from saturated fat • Less than 300 mg/day of cholesterol • Trans fats should be as low as possible • Total fats: 20–30% of total calories (lean protein sources)

  21. Carbohydrates • Important source of energy and essential nutrients • Key recommendations: • Choose fiber-rich fruits, vegetables, whole grains • Prepare foods with little added sugar • Limit intake of foods high in sugar and starch • Reduce the risk of dental caries (cavities): • Practice good oral hygiene • Eat foods high in sugar and starch less frequently

  22. Sodium and Potassium • Essential for health in appropriate amounts • Potassium is linked to healthful blood pressure • Excess sodium consumption: • Linked to high blood pressure in some people • Can cause loss of calcium from bones • Key recommendations: • Consume less than 2,300 mg/day sodium (1 tsp. salt) • Choose and prepare foods with little salt • Consume potassium-rich foods (fruits, vegetables)

  23. Alcoholic Beverages • Alcohol provides energy, but not nutrients • Depresses the nervous system • Toxic to the liver and other body cells • Excess can lead to health and social problems

  24. Alcoholic Beverages • Key recommendations: • Drink sensibly and in moderation • Moderation: 1 drink for women, 2 for men per day • People who should not drink alcohol include: • Women of child-bearing age who may become pregnant • Pregnant or lactating women, children, adolescents • Persons on medications that can interact with alcohol • People who are engaging in activities that require attention, skill, or coordination

  25. Food Safety • Healthful diet is safe from food-borne illness • Important tips: • Store and cook foods at the proper temperatures • Avoid unpasteurized juices and milk, raw or undercooked meats and shellfish • Wash hands and cooking surfaces before cooking and after handling raw meats, shellfish, and eggs

  26. USDA Food Guide: MyPyramid • MyPyramid is used to plan a healthful diet • Conceptual framework for the types and amounts of foods that make up a healthful diet • Will change as more is learned about nutrition • Based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary Reference Intakes • Personalized guide accessible on the Internet

  27. MyPyramid MyPyramid is intended to help Americans • Eat in moderation • Eat a variety of foods • Consume the right proportion of each recommended food group • Personalize their eating plan • Increase their physical activity • Set goals for gradually improving their food choices and lifestyle

  28. MyPyramid Six food groups: • Grains • Vegetables • Fruits • Oils • Milk • Meat

  29. MyPyramid: Grains • “Make half your grains whole” • Eat at least 3 ounces of whole-grain breads, cereal, crackers, rice, or pasta each day • Foods in this group provide fiber-rich carbohydrates and are good sources of the nutrients riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, iron, folate, zinc, protein, and magnesium ABC Video Whole Grains

  30. MyPyramid: Vegetables and Fruits • “Vary your veggies” • Eat more dark green and orange vegetables and more dry beans and peas • “Focus on fruits” • Go easy on fruit juices • Fruits and vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins A and C, folate, potassium, and magnesium

  31. MyPyramid: Vegetables and Fruits • Phytochemicals • Naturally occurring plant chemicals such as pigments that enhance health • Work together in whole foods in a unique way to provide health benefits • Found in soy, garlic, onions, teas, coffee • Scientific study of phytochemicals is new • May reduce risks for chronic diseases (cancer and cardiovascular disease)

  32. MyPyramid: Oils • “Know your fats” • Encourage selection of health-promoting forms of fats: fat from fish, nuts, and vegetable oils • Sources of vitamin E and essential fatty acids • Limit solid fats: butter, stick margarine, shortening, lard, and visible fat on meat

  33. MyPyramid: Milk • “Get your calcium-rich foods” • Suggest low-fat or fat-free dairy products • People who cannot consume dairy can choose lower-lactose or lactose-free dairy products or other calcium sources: • Calcium-fortified juices; soy and rice beverages • Dairy foods are good sources of calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin, protein, vitamin B12 • Many are fortified with vitamins A and D

  34. MyPyramid: Meat and Beans • “Go lean on protein” • Include meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, nuts • Encourage low-fat or lean meats and poultry • Cooking methods: baking, broiling, grilling • Good sources of protein, phosphorus, vitamins B6 and B12, magnesium, iron, zinc, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin • Legumes: good sources of fiber and vitamins (vegetables), proteins and minerals (meats)

  35. MyPyramid: Discretionary Calories • New concept • Represent the extra energy a person can consume after he or she has met all essential needs by consuming nutrient-dense foods • Depends upon age, gender, physical activity • Foods that use discretionary calories: • fats: butter, salad dressing, mayonnaise, gravy • high-sugar foods: candies, desserts, soft drinks

  36. MyPyramid: How Much of Each Food? • The number of servings for each section of the pyramid is based on the recommended calorie level • Ounce-equivalent is used to define a serving size for the grains and meats and beans sections

  37. MyPyramid: Serving Sizes • What is considered a serving size? Grains (1 ounce-equivalent) • 1 slice of bread • 1 cup ready-to-eat cereal • 1/2 cup cooked rice, pasta, or cereal Vegetables (1 cup-equivalent) • 2 cups raw leafy vegetable (spinach) • 1 cup chopped raw or cooked vegetable (broccoli)

  38. MyPyramid: Serving Sizes • What is considered a serving size? Meats (1 ounce-equivalent) • 3-oz. meat is 3 oz-equivalents • 1 egg, 1 tablespoon peanut butter, and 1/4 cup cooked dry beans are 1 oz-equivalents in the meat and beans group

  39. MyPyramid: Serving Sizes • There is no national standardized definition for a serving size of any food • Serving size may differ from food labels • Check the Nutrition Facts Panel for the serving sizes of packaged foods

  40. Alternate Food Guide Pyramids • Variations of MyPyramid not yet developed for diverse populations • Adaptations of previous versions of USDA Food Guide Pyramid: • Athletes—emphasized fluid replacement • Children and adults over age 70 • Mediterranean Diet Pyramid • Ethnic and cultural variations

  41. Eating Out on a Healthful Diet • Eating in restaurants often involves: • High-calorie, high-fat, and high-sodium foods • Large portion sizes • A restaurant meal can be equivalent to the recommended fat or calorie intake for an entire day! • Educated consumers can make wise meal choices while dining out ABC Video Fast-Food Trends