Chapter 4.1 Physical Activity and Skills-Related Fitness
Choices for Physical Activity • Definition: Any form of movement – whether purposeful, as in exercise and sports or recreation, or incidental, as when carrying out domestic chores. • Lifestyle Activities • Definition: Forms of physical activity that are a normal part of your daily routine or recreation and that promote good health throughout a lifetime • Examples include Backpacking, Hiking, Dancing, and cross country skiing. • Sports Activities • Usually Involve competition and are guided by set of rules. • Examples include baseball, BASKETBALL, football, hockey, and others.
The Other Three Types • Individual Sports • Skills oriented activities that you can do by yourself. • They are usually lifetime activities (activities that are part of a daily routine) • Examples include golf, swimming, bicycling. • Partner Sports • Activities carried out with a partner • Examples include tennis or racquetball • Nature Sports • Activities in which there is some interaction with nature • Examples include surfing, rock climbing, and sailing
Choosing Physical Activities • It is best not to limit yourself to a single type of activity • Alternating physical activities works different muscles and body systems, enabling achievement of total fitness • Skills-Related Fitness • Agility – The ability to control the body’s movements and to change the body’s position quickly. • Balance – The ability to remain upright either while standing still or moving. • Coordination – The ability to use two or more body parts together well, or use the senses along with the body parts. • Speed – The ability to move a distance or complete a body of movement in a short period of time. • Reaction Time – The rate of movement once a person realizes the need to move. • Power – The ability to use force with great speed.
Chapter 4.2 Physical Activity and Total Health
Sports and Nutrition • Training Program – A program of formalized preparation for participation in a sport. • Food and drink plays an important part in a training program. • Food provides necessary energy for activity while water and other liquids keep you hydrated. • Hydration – The addition of body fluids that you get through drinking liquids, especially water • During physical activity, the body loses water through sweat and intense breathing. • This process is known as dehydration. • It is potentially life threatening. • To prepare for an activity, the athlete should drink several cups of fluids two hours before, and then 15 minutes before, a heavy workout
Avoiding Harmful Substances and Practices & Adequate Rest • Avoiding harmful substances and practices is another part of making healthy decisions and maintaining an athletic training program. • Examples of Harmful Substances and Practicesinclude tobacco, excessive consumption of alcohol, anabolic steroids, and drugs not prescribed by a physician. • Anabolic Steroids – Chemicals similar to the male hormone testosterone. • These steroids are sometimes taken illegally by athletes to increase muscle mass and performance • The negative effects of these steroids are immense, including: • Increased risk of cancer and heart disease. • Sterility – The inability to have children • Skin problems, such as acne and hair loss • Unusual weight gain or loss • Sexual underdevelopment and dysfunction • Violent, suicidal, or depressive tendencies. • There are also legal ramifications; illegal distribution and possession (without a prescription) are felonies. • Adequate Rest • Sleep is one of the most important aspects of training. • Restful sleep helps to re-energize the body. • Insufficient sleep disrupts the nervous system
Sports and the Mind • Although natural ability does play a part in an individual’s success at sports, effort is far more important. • While the athlete should be realistic about aspects of her ability, that does not mean that she is limited and cannot excel through hard work. • Mind-Body Composition is just as important; having a positive mindset makes the athlete more likely to succeed. • Sports and Competition should not make the athlete forget that an obsession with winning is unhealthful from a mental perspective and can be harmful to both his mental and social health.
Lesson 4.3 Avoiding Injuries
Minor Exercise-Related Injuries • The most common injuries are inflicted upon the muscular and skeletal systems. • Muscle Cramp – A spasm or sudden tighteningof a muscle. • Usually the result of irritation within the muscle from being overworked or from dehydration. • Can often be alleviated by drinking cool water. • Especially dangerous to swimmers. • Strain – A condition in which muscles have been overworked. • Can occur from participating in strenuous activity to which the athlete is unaccustomed. • To avoid strains, the athlete should warm up and should not “go all out” on the first day of exercise. • Sprain – An injury to the tissues surrounding a joint. • Often occurs when ligaments are stretched and torn. • Can be accompanied by severe pain, swelling, and difficulty moving. • A sprain may even take more time to heal than a broken bone and severe strains are major injuries that require immediate medical attention.
Treatment for Minor Injuries • Muscle strains and sprains can be treated through the R.I.C.E. Technique • Rest • The injured athlete should avoid using the affected muscle or joint. • This might entail staying in bed for some time. • Ice • Ice helps reduce pain and swelling. • Should be applied for 20 minutes, removed for 20 minutes, and applied again for 20 minutes. • Compression • Light pressure (like an Ace Bandage) can help reduce swelling • If it cuts off blood flow, that is bad! • Elevation • Raising the affected limb above the heart can help reduce pain and swelling.
Major Exercise-Related Injuries • Definition – Injuries for which medical treatment is required • Fractures – Any type of break in the bone • They require immediate immobilization to heal properly • If the bone has entirely broken in two, the two fragments must be forcibly placed back in place (“set”) in order to heal, sometimes with clamps and screws. • Dislocation – a condition that results when a bone slips from its normal position at a joint • The bone must be put back into place and immobilized by a doctor or trained professional so that the tissue can heal. • Tendinitis – a condition in which the tendons are stretched or torn from overuse. • Requires rest, medications, and physical therapy to heal most effectively. • Blows to the Head • Can cause swelling of the brain (and thus unconsciousness and even death) • Can cause concussions • Definition – A temporary disturbance in the brain’s ability to function. • Symptoms include dizziness and headaches. • Concussions are serious conditions that should be reported to a physician immediately.
Weather Related Risks • Hot Weather Risks • Overexertion – overworking the body. • Dehydration – A lack of sufficient fluids within the body. • Heat Cramps – Muscle spasms that result from loss of large amounts of salt and water through perspiration. • Heat Exhaustion – Overheating of the body resulting in cold, clammy skin and symptoms of shock. • Other symptoms include dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, and nausea. • Heatstroke – An inability of the body to rid itself of excess heat through perspiration. • This is potentially life threatening. • Cold Weather Risks • Frostbite – Condition that results when body tissue becomes frozen. • To avoid frostbite, dress in warm clothes in cold weather and cover all exposed skin. • Dress in layers • Hypothermia – A condition in which the body temperature becomes dangerously low • Can result from long exposure to rainy, windy, or cold weather. • The body temperature becomes dangerously low to the point where the brain can no longer function. • The victim may act disoriented and lose motor control • Hypothermia is life threatening and should be treated medically as soon as possible.
Thinking About Safety • Personal Safety • Take note of the time and place where you chose to exercise bearing in mind your personal safety. • Using Proper Equipment • Use protective equipment in order to avoid injury to both the body and the head. • A good way to try out equipment before purchasing it is by borrowing from a friend. • Shoes should have cushioned heel, good arch support, and ample toe room; laced shoes are best for proper control of the feet. • Chose appropriate clothing for the activity in which you are engaging. • Ex: Do not go biking in a long billowing dress that will be caught on the spokes of the bicycle.