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Welcome to Week 3!

Welcome to Week 3!

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Welcome to Week 3!

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  1. Welcome to Week 3! Please Sign In & Turn In: Agenda for today… Journal 2 “The Changing American Family” questions Any late work Review Quiz Reading Assign the first writing style paragraph Chapter 18 Vocabulary Begin Chapter 3 End of Class Quiz

  2. Review Quiz Last week we discussed how to create topic sentences. Please write down what the subject and controlling idea for these topic sentences? • Body weigh exercise is a great way to loose weight and build muscle. • Sacramento and New Orleans are surprisingly similar. • Apes make horrible pets. • A good attitude is one of the most important things.

  3. Review Quiz Last week we discussed how to create topic sentences. Please write down what the subject and controlling idea for these topic sentences? • Body weigh exercise is a great way to loose weight and build muscle. • Sacramento and New Orleansare surprisingly similar. • Apesmake horrible pets. • A good attitude is one of the most important things.

  4. Reading “My Heroes” pg. 634-636

  5. Chapter 18 Illustration Paragraph • Chapter 18 begins on pg. 352 • This chapter will give you good guidance on writing a good paragraph in this style. • Please use the chapter to help you write your paragraph • See examples on pg 363 - 366

  6. Chapter 3 Subjects and Verbs

  7. Sentences p. 35 • What is a complete sentence? • It is a group of words that has three parts to it. • 1) A subject • 2) A Verb • 3) A Complete Thought • Joseph lifts weights.

  8. Finding the Subject • How do you find the subject in a simple sentence? • 5 Tips for finding the subject. • Tip 1: The subject usually answers the question “who or what is this sentence about?”

  9. Finding the Subject • Tip 2: The subject often is at the beginning of the sentence. • Practice p. 35 • 1) The gym seemed noisier than usual. • 2) Our coach was shouting last-minute instructions. • 3) He expected total concentration. • 4) Three athletes were doing push-ups. • 5) People were beginning to fill the bleachers.

  10. Finding the Subject • Tip 3: The subject of a sentence is usually a noun or a pronoun. • What is a noun? • A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing or idea. • A noun can also be Common or Proper.

  11. Finding the Subject CommonProper Person: singer John Mayer painter Pablo Picasso Place: ballpark AT&T Park building Empire State Building Thing: watch Rolex trophy World Cup Idea beauty, patriotism, happiness, justice

  12. Finding the Subject • Practice p. 36 • 1) The morning of June 27 was clear and sunny. • 2) The flowers were blossoming profusely, and the grass was richly green. • 3) The people of the village began to gather in the square. • 4) The lottery was conducted by Mr. Sommers. • 5) The jovial man had time and energy to devote to civic activities.

  13. Finding the Subject • What is a pronoun? • It is a word that takes the place of a noun. • Practice p. 36 • 1) The crowd arrived early. • They arrived early • 2) The gym was noisy. • It was noisy

  14. Finding the Subject • 3) People waited eagerly. • They waited eagerly. • 4) Coach Ann Bradway had not lost a game yet this season. • She had not lost a game yet this season. • 5) Steven and I found the best seats in the front row. • We found the best seats in the front row. • 6) Not one person could predict the outcome. • Nobody (or No one) could predict the outcome.

  15. Finding the Subject Pronouns Chart (p. 37) Personal Pronouns: SingularPlural 1st person: I we 2nd person: you you 3rd person: he, she, it they

  16. Finding the Subject Pronouns • Relative pronouns • Who • What • Demonstrative pronouns • this • that • these • those

  17. Finding the Subject • Tip 4: Noun or pronouns can be modified by adjectives. • What is an adjective? • A word that modifies (describes or limits) a noun or a pronoun. • young Avon He is young.

  18. Finding the Subject • Practice (p. 37) • First find the nouns or pronouns, then the adjectives. • 1) The swimmer was confident. • Nouns and pronouns : swimmer • Adjectives: confident • 2) Her long and strenuous workouts would soon pay off. • Nouns and pronouns : workouts • Adjectives: her long strenuous

  19. Finding the Subject • 3) Several meters remained to reach the finish line. • Nouns and pronouns : meters line • Adjectives: Several finish • 4) Suddenly, she felt a terrible cramp in one leg. • Nouns and pronouns: She cramp leg • Adjectives: terrible one • 5) A disappointing defeat would be the result. • Nouns and pronouns: defeat result • Adjectives: disappointing

  20. Finding the Subject • Tip 5: The subject of a sentence can be compound. (There can be more than one subject in a sentence.) • Practice (p. 38) • 1) Exercise and diet are the secrets to good health. • 2) Mothers and fathers should help their children establish healthy lifestyles. • 3) Unfortunately, biological factors or environmental factors could cause health problems.

  21. Finding the Subject • 5 Tips for finding the subject of a sentence. • 1) The subject answers the question “who or what is the sentence about.” • 2) The subject is usually towards the beginning of the sentence. • 3) The subject is a noun or a pronoun • 4) Nouns and pronouns can be modified by adjectives • 5) There can be more than one subject in a sentence. Exercises 1 (p. 39)

  22. Finding the Subject • Exercises 1 (p. 39) • 1) The train stopped. • Train • 2) Steven Laye had arrived. • Steven Laye • 3) He was afraid. • He

  23. 4) Everything looked so strange. • Everything • 5) The fearful man held his bag tightly. • man • 6) The tunnel led up to the street. • Tunnel

  24. Finding the Subject • 7) Buses and cars choked the avenues. • Buses cars • 8) People rushed everywhere. • People • 9) The noise gave him a headache. • Noise • 10) Loneliness filled his heart. • loneliness

  25. Prepositions What is a preposition? It is any word that can describe the relationship of a caterpillar to an apple.

  26. The caterpillar goes _____ the apple(s).

  27. Prepositional Phrases • Prepositions are always found in prepositional phrases. • A phrase is a group of words that lacks either a subject or a verb and functions as a single part of speech. • A prepositional phrase (and all the words in it) is only a prepositional phrase and never anything else.

  28. Prepositional Phrases • A preposition will always start the phrase, and a noun ends it. • at hotels • for Isaac • with milk

  29. Prepositional Phrases • They can also have other words in them. They may have adjectives that describe the object of the preposition: • I put my teddy bear behind my blue pillow • below the yellow blanket • over the television • BUT... they MUST all begin with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun

  30. Prepositional Phrases • Prepositions are ALWAYS in a prepositional phrase. • Prepositional phrases start with a preposition and end with a noun… ALWAYS. • If you start a sentence with a prepositional phrase you must put a comma at the end of it. • If you put a prepositional phrase in the middle or end of a sentence you do not need a comma.

  31. Prepositional Phrases • Dates and the names of places are nouns. They often require commas. • 1901 J st, Sacramento, California • Friday, February 11, 2011 • If we use these to end prepositional phrases we must include all of the date or the name of the place.

  32. Prepositional Phrases • THE SUBJECT OR VERB OF A SENTENCE IS NEVER IN A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE!! • See list of common prepositions on p. 41, and common prepositional combinations on p. 42.

  33. Prepositional Phrases • Exercise 6 (p. 42) • People across the country are anxious about high heating costs. After the devastating Gulf Coast hurricanes of 2005, fuel prices spiked. On account of these higher fuel prices, many people are making changes to their homes. Some are turning their fears into actions. They have consulted with energy specialists for recommendations. They have plugged cracks, insulated attics, and crawled underneath warm blankets.

  34. Prepositional Phrases • People across the country are anxious about high heating costs. After the devastation Gulf Coast hurricanes of 2005, fuel prices spiked. On account of these higher fuel prices, many people are making changes to their homes. Some are turning their fears into actions. They have consulted with energy specialists for recommendations. They have plugged cracks, insulated attics, and crawled underneath warm blankets.

  35. Prepositional Phrases • 1) On Friday, January 27, 2006, Western Union sent its last telegram. • 1) On Friday, January 27, 2006, Western Union sent its last telegram. • 2) With the ascendancy of modern technology, the telegram is no longer needed. • 2) With the ascendancy of modern technology, the telegram is no longer needed.

  36. Prepositional Phrases • 3) In 1851 in Rochester, New York, Western Union had its beginnings. • 3) In 1851 in Rochester, New York, Western Union had its beginnings. • 4) Messages were transmitted by Morse code over the wires and delivered by couriers. • 4) Messages were transmitted by Morse code over the wires and delivered by couriers.

  37. Prepositional Phrases • 5) Eventually, telegraph service drove the pony express out of business. • 5) Eventually, telegraph service drove the pony express out of business. • 6) Until the emergence of the telegraph, the average delivery time for a message by pony express took ten days. • 6) Until the emergence of the telegraph, the average delivery timefor a message by pony express took ten days.

  38. Prepositional Phrases • 7) At the height of the telegram business, in 1929, two hundred million telegrams were sent around the world. • 7) At the height of the telegram business, in 1929, two hundred million telegrams were sent around the world. • 8) Now for Western Union, money transfers, bill payments, and products such as telephone service and internet access will form the core of their business. • 8) Now for Western Union, money transfers, bill payments, and productssuch as telephone service and internet access will form the core of their business.

  39. Prepositional Phrases • 9) In the past, families sent messages of births, deaths, birthdays, and weddings by telegram. • 9) In the past, families sent messages of births, deaths, birthdays, and weddings by telegram. • 10) In the present era, e-mail and fax messages have taken the place of the telegram. • 10) In the present era, e-mail and fax messages have taken the place of the telegram.

  40. Appositive Phrases • What is an appositive phrase? • A group of words that gives us extra information about a noun or a pronoun in that sentence. It always starts and ends with a comma. • We use them to add more information into our sentences and give more information about someone or something that we have already named. • We can check if it’s an appositive phrase if we can remove it from the sentence and the sentence still makes sense. • THE SUBJECT OR VERB OF A SENTENCE IS NEVER IN AN APPOSTIVIE PHRASE!!

  41. Appositive Phrases • My mother, a lovely woman, baked cupcakes for my birthday. • My mother baked cupcakes for my birthday. • Henry, my little puppy, chewed my shoes apart while I was gone. • Henry chewed my shoes apart while I was gone.

  42. Appositive Phrases • Practice (p. 43) • 1) Alex Harkavy, a high school senior, has an auditory-processing disorder. • 1) Alex Harkavy, a high school senior, has an auditory-processing disorder. • 2) Marcia Rubinsein, an educational consultant, can help him find the right college. • 2) Marcia Rubinsein, an educational consultant, can help him find the right college.

  43. Appositive Phrases • 3) For instance, Landmark, a college in Putney, Vermont, specializes in programs for students with learning disablilities. • 3) For instance, Landmark, a college in Putney, Vermont, specializes in programs for students with learning disabilities. • 4) A federal law, the Americans with Disabilities Act, was enacted in 1990. • 4) A federal law, the Americans with Disabilities Act, was enacted in 1990.

  44. Appositive Phrases • 5) Now many colleges, both public and private ones, offer support for learning-disabled students. • 5) Now many colleges, both public and private ones, offer support for learning-disabled students. • 6) One particular guide, Peterson’s Colleges with Programs for Students with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit Disorder, is especially helpful. • 6) One particular guide, Peterson’s Colleges with Programs for Students with Learning Disabilities or Attention Deficit Disorder, is especially helpful.

  45. Other Issues Finding Subjects • Finding subjects in a question. • Try turning the question into a statement. • Why is he going away? • He is going away. • How did he find his sister? • He found his sister by… • Where is her office? • Her office is ….

  46. Other Issues Finding Subjects • Finding the subject in sentences starting with there or here. • Find out who or what the subject is about. • There is a new teacher in the department. • There is a new teacher in the department. • Here comes the woman now. • Here comes the woman now.

  47. Other Issues Finding Subjects • Finding the subject in an instruction or command. • When I am giving an instruction or command, I am talking to you, I just don’t always say it. • Go to Chicago! • (You) go to Chicago! • Help your sister. • (You) help your sister.

  48. Finding the Subject in a Sentence • First, look for any prepositional and appositive phrases and cross them out because the subject is NEVERin one of these. • Second, if the sentence is a question, rewrite it as a statement. • Third, ask “who or what this sentence is about.” • Fourth, check to see if the sentence is a command.

  49. Finding the Subject in a Sentence • Practice (p. 45) • 1) Here in America the sale of human organs for transplant is against the law. • 1) Here in America the saleof human organs for transplant is against the law. • 2) Unfortunately, there is a disturbing illegal market in the sale of these organs. • 2) Unfortunately, there is a disturbing illegal marketin the sale of these organs.

  50. Finding the Subject in a Sentence • 3) Where do some people desperately look for kidneys? • 3) Where do some people desperately look for kidneys? • 4) Why are so many donors exploited and unprotected? • 4) Why are so many donors exploited and unprotected?