Technical Standards Health & Safety Cost / price Perception of performance Ensuring supply Over capacity of primary production Size of market Information requirements Barriers
1) Standards for recyclate & recycled-content products 2) Guidelines for industry on best practice for using recyclates to make new products 3) Recycled content agreements with industry 4) Buy-recycled initiatives 5) Waste exchanges & recyclables exchanges 6) Economic instruments Market Development In order to increase recycling, markets need to be developed for new products and applications, as well as expanding the markets for existing products. Options to tackle these barriers include:
1a) Standards for Recyclates • Advantages: • Buyers are made more aware of potential materials • Recyclate sellers have access to larger potential markets • MRF operators can design & operate plant more easily • Easier for potential users to design processes which can use recyclable/recycled materials
Ferrous metal Non-ferrous metal Textiles Glass Paper Plastic Wood Rubber 1a) Available Recyclates & Standards Few International Standards Little Sampling & Test Methods
1b) Standards for Recycled Products • Product standards are required for a number of reasons, including; • To ensure that products are safe to use • To facilitate trade • Current product standards take into account: • Fitness for purpose • Level of grading • Performance testing • Health & Safety
2) Guidelines for Industry • Development of Best Practice Programmes • e.g. Construction Best Practice Programme, looks at reuse of construction and demolition waste, amongst other things • Technical Information Dissemination • e.g. Waste Resources Action Programme researches, collects, and disseminates information on technological advances and market research reports.
Advantages Would protect recycling when virgin prices drop Disadvantages Potentially against free market & competition Long distance transport of recyclates is environmentally unfriendly 3) Recycled Content Agreements
4) Buy Recycled Initiatives/Promotions • Change public perception • Provide information on recycled content • Lead by example - green procurement • Industry & public initiatives • Government intervention
Waste Exchange Waste management licenses required to deal with wastes Resource & recyclables exchange benefits: Advancing the market place for recovered materials Development of an efficient system to benefit all users Reducing market place uncertainty by making people aware that recyclables are a commodity Providing a method for reducing uncertainty for both buyers and sellers in dealing with ‘new’ sellers and buyers. 5) Waste & Recyclables Exchanges
6) Economic Instruments • Subsidised collection of recyclates • Producer responsibility • Packaging Directive • ELV Directive • WEEE Directive • Increased landfill tax • preventative (higher landfill tax) • curative (Landfill Tax Credit Scheme to investigate alternatives to landfill) • Alter local authority procedures
Green Design As a result of current and forthcoming producer responsibility legislation, manufacturers will need to think about the recyclability of their packaging, electronic equipment and vehicles. Although products which are easier to recycle are more likely to be recycled, this does not guarantee an increase in markets for recyclables. However, if costs for separating materials for recycling are reduced, this might improve the supply of materials to potential markets.
Market Development Initiatives • Packaging - recycling obligations, monitored via PRNs • Landfill Directive - alternatives to landfill needed, such as recycling • WEEE Directive - design for disassembly and easy recycling • ELV Directive - recycling targets for vehicles
Paper & cardboard Retread tyres Oil (transmission/engine) Insulation Road building materials Mulch/compost Geotextiles Plastic pipe Plastic desk accessories Stationery waste baskets Carpeting Outdoor benches & tables Playground equipment Bicycle racks Wall panels Chipboard Sign posts Rubbish bags Furniture Fences & fence posts Recycled Products
Standard = an accepted/approved example of something against which others are judged Specification = detailed description of the criteria for the constituents, construction, appearance, performance etc. of a material or product Value for money = the optimum combination of quality and whole life costs to meet user’s requirements. MRF = Materials Recycling Facility PRN = Packaging Recovery Note Definitions
References • Www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/reduce/wstewise/pubs/buy.pdf • Developing Markets for Recycled Materials. 1999. AEAT-5538 Issue 1. • Watts, B. M. Probert, J. Bentley, S. P. 2001. Developing Markets for recyclate: perspectives from South Wales. Resources Conservation & Recycling 32: 293 - 304 • http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/strategy/mdg/report/2.htm