What is Science? Science can broadly be defined as the study of "things" such as: Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Genetics, Geology, Psychology, Sociology, and other fields of study that analyze interactions, behaviors, physical properties, effects, causes, etc. in order to rationalize or establish given properties, behaviors and interactions about such "things". The basis of Science is the conducting of experiments. Basically, a theory is made (stated), analysis and testing are performed with the use of various controls, and when a specific, measurable result occurs, and can be reproduced or proven time and time again, the theory then becomes Scientific law, or a truism of sorts.
What is Technology? • Technology, refers generally to items of use, created from "Applied Science". • A good example of this is the production of Solar panels. • It was proposed long ago that the Sun emits 2 types of energy, heat energy and light energy. The Sun's heat energy is what warms the Earth's atmosphere so that life as we know it can exist. Plants use light energy and produce carbohydrates, proteins and fats. This is Science. • The sun's light energy is absorbed by Solar Panels (and Solar Cells), which converts it to electricity. This is technology.
Benefits from good science education • A good science education helps students to develop the understandings and habits of mind which they need to become compassionate human beings. • The communication, research and collaboration skills that science provides can produce a generation who are better prepared for any career. • Students who have solid knowledge of science and technology can boost businesses and stimulate the economy. • A science literate society will provide the necessary support and promotion to ensure future generations will continue to improve upon modern advances.
Benefits from study of technology • Technology study area provide students with real life and life like problem solving situations and they often tackle design challenges in collaborative teams and develop a wide range of viable solutions using materials, information and systems. • Students understand the nature and consequences of technical change within society. • It improves economic development through increased knowledge .
Ethical dilemmas of a Science teacher. • What should be the purpose of teaching of science? • Should science teaching be focused on elucidation of theories and truism alone? • What should be importance imparted on teaching of technology component of science? • Am I really equipped to speak on technology which has an entrepreneurial component?
What is happening in the area of teaching of science? • Teachers are imparting knowledge of concepts, processes, interactions, effects and results of what ever subjects they are teaching. Basically the importance of theories and laws are elucidated. • Economic importance of the scientific knowledge is given secondary importance. • Student is often competent to lecture on theory without any practical experience of its commercial utilization.
Technology has become the orphan of Science. • It is true that “Science” is the mother of technology. • Science is funded by government budgets and endowment grants. • In institutions where Science is taught- “The mother- Science” is given so much of importance that “The Child-Technology” becomes an orphan. • But, the society needs technology and hence it is picked by “ Entrepreneurs” who gain from technology. Real world pays for technology.
Combining Science & Technology • Combining science and technology while teaching science certainly makes the study of science interesting. • Students not only become knowledge but develop the skills required by the society. • As adequate importance is not given to the technology component in ‘Teaching and Research” many disciplines they have lost importance in the eyes of students.
Let us look at the “Teaching and Research on Sericulture’as a case study.
Developments in teaching of sericulture in Karnataka • Sericulture research developed in Karnataka as ‘World Bank “ funded research projects at Mysore university, Bangalore University and Karnataka university in 1977. • In 1980 The “ Sericulture research Institute” was started by Government of Karnataka as a non teaching research institution. • In 1982 Sericulture research project was initiated at Agricultural University, Bangalore.
From 1980 to 1995 • Exponential growth in teaching and research in Sericulture. • Research projects enabled creation of new faculties and new Department of Studies. • Both teaching and research activities were expanded with funds from World bank assisted projects. • Sericulture was introduced as a subject at undergraduate levels.
From 1995- 2005 • Support for teaching and research in sericulture in post graduate departments diminished on account of winding up of World bank loan to Karnataka for Sericulture development. • Students find it difficult to find jobs. The subject is not preferred by the student community at post graduation level. • Department of Sericulture at Bangalore and Dharwad university almost stopped research and teaching activities. • The Units at Mysore University and Chintamani ( UAS Bangalore) still continue to function.
Situation 2010 • Department of studies in Sericulture at University of Bangalore and Dharwad are closed. • The Sericulture Research Institute is starved of funds and lacks patronage by the government. • Department of studies in Sericulture at University of Mysore and Sericultutre college at Chintamani are still functioning.
Why science students are not showing desired interest in Post graduate studies in Sericulture ? • Are the students finding that the market value for the knowledge gained out of a course in Sericulture is less than other subjects? • Is the present teaching programme on “ Sericulture” not market oriented? • Is that the reason for the discipline “sericulture” not being able to generate funds required for pursuing higher research. • How can technology component be added to the instruction programme?
Objectives of learning to a student • Knowledge gains • Curiosity. • New Skills which will enable to earn livelihood (usually must be better than available options). • Social recognition and a sense of achievement in a competitive world.
Teaching of Sericulture in Post graduate departments • Focused on silk farming. • Stress on rearing practices of silk worm. • Diseases of silk worm. • Cultivation practices of Mulbery. • Genetics and breeding practices. • Some academic discussion on biotechnology.
What is not dealt as part of teaching curriculam? • Nothing on reeling, weaving and processing of silk fiber. • Nothing on designing of fabric. • Nothing on market dynamics of silk fiber trade. • One is not even aware that trading in silk fabric is almost becoming secondary in the recent past.
New dimensions in the use of silk • Dietary applications of silk. • Cosmetic applications of Silk. • Pharmaceutical applications of silk. • Biomedical applications. • Automobile applications. • House building applications. • Antibacterial applications.
Silk Powder and It’s Uses • Silk powder is derived from pure silk worm cocoon. • Quality silk powder is silk that is synthetically ground down and processed to remove impurities. • It is then converted into a fine, yellowish or pinkish fine powder using a technology that retains the silk protein's natural amino acids and lipids.
Use of Silk powder in Cosmetics • On the skin, silk powder radiates and reflects UV rays, acting as a natural sunscreen. • It is able to superbly retain the skin's natural moisture, preventing dryness, while absorbing excess sebum. • For the acne prone, silk even contains anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. • Good quality silk powder also contains many amino acids, like alanine, glycine and serine, which are the building blocks of protein and are essential to the skin's natural moisturization process. • Pure silk is also ideal for sensitive skin, and balances the skin's ph levels.
Use of Silk Powder in Cosmetics • Silk powder, liquid silk or silk proteins are added in many cosmetics products. • Upscale body lotions and scrubs use silk powder or liquid silk to moisturize, nourish and enliven the skin, and improve radiance and clarity. • Silk infused hair care products improve the hair's natural luminosity, softness and elasticity.
Silk powder as foundation primer • Silk powder is very fine and blends flawlessly with the skin.On the face, silk powder is an excellent foundation primer, especially when paired with other mineral based makeup, and is an ideal canvas upon which other makeup glides on smoothly and effortlessly. • The powder will promote the skin's natural radiance, giving it a flawless, crystallized texture, while absorbing excess oil, and reducing the appearance of large pores. The powder's finish will produce a soft, luminous yet matte finish.
Volume of Trade in Silk Powder in cosmetic industry • Market price of Silk powder is about 460 $/ kg. • Global trade is about 12 billion. • All brands of Multinational companies in shampoo and sun screen lotion are using silk powder, even in India. • China is the biggest producer of silk Powder. • Even Indian silk is good for this purpose. • Waste silk and Silk from seed cocoons is basically used for this purpose.
From an academic perspective-- • No sericulture course in India has this component in its syllabus. • No research is taking place in any university on silk powder. • We do not know the quality of silk powder of our breeds of silk worm. • A number of Cosmetic manufacturing companies may support teaching and research in this area. Our Course on “Sericulture” may be well received.
Fibroin- sericin • Silk is a double strand of Fibroin held together by a sheath of Sericin. • These two proteins are emerging as wonder proteins.
Uses of Sericin • Serecin membranes are good bandage materials as they are strong and flexible. • Because of biocompatibility they are infection resistant. • Graft polymers are used in contact lenses. • When consumed suppresses constipation. • Supresses bowel cancers
Uses of Fibroin • Most important food – low carbohydrate food- most suitable for diabetics and cardiac patients. • Relieves from stomach disoders. • Good binding material and so is used in contact lenses.
Multidimentional uses of silk • In the July 30, 2010, issue of the journal Science, Tufts biomedical engineering researchers FiorenzoOmenetto, and David Kaplan report that "Silk-based materials have been transformed in just the past decade from the commodity textile world to a growing web of applications in more high technology directions." Fundamental discoveries into how silk fibers are made have shown that chemistry, molecular biology and biophysics all play a role in the process. These discoveries have provided the basis for a new generation of applications for silk materials, from medical devices and drug delivery to electronics.
Edible Optics, Implantable Electronics • The Science paper notes that the development of silk hydrogels, films, fibers and sponges is making possible advances in photonics and optics, nanotechnology, electronics, adhesives and microfluidics, as well as engineering of bone and ligaments. • Because silk fiber formation does not rely on complex or toxic chemistries, such materials are biologically and environmentally friendly, even able to integrate with living systems. • Down the silk road of the future, applications could include degradable and flexible electronic displays for sensors that are biologically and environmentally compatible and implantable optical systems for diagnosis and treatment. • Progress in "edible optics" and implantable electronics has already been demonstrated by Kaplan and Omenetto, John Rogers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and others.
Other uses • Silk worm and medicinal uses. • Silk worm and food uses. • Silk worm as a biotechnological tool • ------- many more.
The pertinent questions? • Why have we limited Studies in Sericulture to only rearing of silk worm? By and Large? • Why our research programmes do not look at what is happening in markets? • Why are we dependent on funds from governments and do not try to tap funds from the markets?
The Economic Laws of Scientific Research • This is book by Terence Kealey. • “Research, funded and inspired by practical needs is historically much more fruitful than the State-funded variety”. • Can we get industries which need a “Scientific discipline” to participate in “University teaching and Research Programmes”? • Will such an approach ensure flow of more funds to Science education?
Science teaching and market orientation • Market exposure of science teaching removes the barrier between science and technology. • Market exposure of science teaching brings the entities which need science and technology to the arena of “ University teaching” leading to better flow of knowledge and funds. • The theory of science can be tested in the crucible of technology. • Students will get new skill to support life, industries will seek their skill and thus the discipline becomes relevant.
Biology is very interesting • Biology is the only science in which multiplication is the same thing as division. • Make it more useful to society and use it to teach skills. • Make it “ Market Oriented”. • Faculty will automatically improve.
A weed is a plant that has mastered every survival skillexcept for learning how to grow in rows.- Doug Larson
Why are husbands like lawn mowers? They are difficult to get started, emit foul smells, and don't work half the time.- Author Unknown
A farmer purchased an old, run-down, abandoned farm with plans to turn it into a thriving enterprise. The fieldswere grown over with weeds, the farmhouse was falling apart, and the fences were broken down. During his firstday of work, the town preacher stops by to bless the man's work, saying, "May you and God work together to makethis the farm of your dreams!" A few months later, the preacher stops by again to call on the farmer. Lo and behold,it's a completely different place. The farm house is completely rebuilt and in excellent condition, there is plentyof cattle and other livestock happily munching on feed in well-fenced pens, and the fields are filled with crops plantedin neat rows. "Amazing!" the preacher says. "Look what God and you have accomplished together!" "Yes, reverend," says the farmer, "but remember what the farm was like when God was working it alone!"
What is the fastest way to determine the sex of a chromosome? Pull down its genes.