Due diligence is what we promote, Risk Management is what we support. Workplace Inspection Training Program Presented by: Catherine (Cate) Drum, BASc (OHS), CHSC, CRSP EHS Officer Department of Environmental Health & Safety (EHS) and Security
Benefits of a Workplace Inspection program • Comply with legislation by practicing due diligence • Improve housekeeping • Reduce unsafe conditions and practices • Improve procedures and system effectiveness • Determine opportunities for improvement • Reduce accident frequencies
What is Occupational Health and Safety? • OHS is a discipline that aims to provide a safe and healthy environment for workers • The goal is to eliminate or control potential workplace hazards such that injury and illness are kept to a minimum
What is an Occupational Hazard? • An occupational hazard is a thing or situation with the potential to harm a worker • There are two categories: Safety hazards and Health hazards • Safety concerns unsafe conditions and acts that could cause injury (eg: slips and falls) • Health concerns environmental factors that could impair the soundness of body, mind and spirit of workers causing illness (eg: radiation exposure; noise that impairs hearing)
What is a risk? • A hazard posed by some material or situation is its potential to cause harm • Risk is the probability that the hazard actually will harm someone • Risk also includes a consideration of the seriousness of the hazard • Removing occupational hazards is only one way of improving worker protection • What is often more practical is the control or management of risks that hazards pose
How should workplace health and safety hazards be dealt with? • Through recognition, assessment and control • Recognition involves identifying a hazard and determining if there is a possibility of workers being affected by it • If there is a possibility of adverse effect, the hazard must be assessed and its level determined • If the hazard is determined to be significant, the hazard must be controlled
How can we control hazards? • We can control hazard at 3 levels: the source, the path, and the receiver • We can use engineering controls (modifying/isolating process), administrative controls (education/training), and control through use of personal protective equipment
How can we control hazards? At the source: • Substitute with a less harmful material • Change of process • Enclosure or isolation or process • Local exhaust ventilation At the path: • Housekeeping (immediate cleanup of spills) • Increase distance between source and receiver • General ventilation At the receiver: • Personal protective equipment • Rotation of workers to reduce exposure duration • Training & Education
What are the legal requirements? • Legal requirements governing exposure to various health and safety hazards in universities can be found in Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations for Industrial Establishments • Health hazards are also in hazard-specific regulations including: • 12 designated substance regulations • Regulation respecting the Control of Exposure to Biological or Chemical Agents • Regulation respecting X-Ray Safety
What are the legal requirements for Personal Protective Equipment? • An employer has a general duty, under OHSA Section 25 (2)(h) to “take every precaution reasonable in the circumstances” to protect workers • This means that PPE should be provided to workers whenever there are health or safety risks that cannot be controlled in other ways • PPE can reduce or prevent a worker’s exposure to a health hazard in the workplace • PPE includes respirators, hearing protectors, protective clothing, footwear, face shields
What are the health effects from workplace hazard exposure? • Health hazards mostly result from inhalation, ingestion, injection or contact of harmful substances, or from excessive noise, vibration and temperature exposure • The effect can be acute, from a single, high exposure • The effect can also be chronic, from repeated low level exposure over a prolonged time period • Occupational exposure limits are established to control worker exposure of a harmful substance or energy to a level that does not result in adverse acute or chronic health effects
Types of Hazards • Safety hazards • Chemical hazards • Physical hazards • Biological hazards • Ergonomic hazards • Environmental hazards • Violence in the Workplace
Safety Hazards • Unsafe workplace conditions • Hazardous physical conditions or circumstances which could directly permit the occurrence of an accident • Unsafe work practices or acts • Violation of known or accepted safe procedures which could permit the occurrence of an accident
Examples of Safety Hazards • Unsafe workplace conditions • Unkempt work space • Inadequate warning system • Defective tools and equipment • Inadequate guards or barriers • Poor walking surface • Inadequate ventilation • Temperature extreme exposures • Unsafe work practices or acts • Horseplay • Not wearing personal protective equipment • Using defective equipment • Substandard work practices • Removing safety devices • Failure to follow procedures • Failure to warn others
Chemical Hazards • Solids, liquids, vapours, gases, dusts, fumes or mists • Flammables, corrosives, toxics, compressed gases, oxidizers • Harmful through inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact
Physical Hazards • Noise, vibration, energy, electricity, radiation, pressure, moving mechanical parts, extreme heat and cold Biological Hazards • Bacteria, viruses, fungi, insects, proteins from animals or substances from plants • May cause acute or chronic health effects through inhalation, injection, ingestion or contact with the skin
Ergonomic Hazards • Hazards that arise from interactions between man and his total working environment • Ergonomic stress factors deal with workstation, equipment, tool design and environmental factors in the workplace • Repetitive motions, awkward postures, improper lifting, manual material handling, excessive forces • Major concern for ergonomic hazards is repetitive strain injuries, or work-related musculoskeletal disorders
Environmental Hazards • Comfort factors (temperature and humidity), poor indoor air quality, inadequate ventilation, inadequate or excessive illumination • Eg: moulds, dirty ceiling vents, dusty floors, heavy perfumes
Violence in the Workplace Hazards • Everyone should be able to work without fear of violence or harassment, in a safe and healthy workplace. Violence and harassment in the workplace are not tolerated in Ontario. • Changes to the OHSA – effective June 15, 2010 – strengthen protections for workers from workplace violence and address workplace harassment. They apply to all provincially regulated workplaces.
Violence in the Workplace Hazards Defining workplace violence • The exercise of physical force by a person against a worker, in a workplace, that causes or could cause physical injury to the worker. • An attempt to exercise physical force against a worker, in a workplace, that could cause physical injury to the worker. • A statement or behaviour that it is reasonable for a worker to interpret as a threat to exercise physical force against the worker, in a workplace, that could cause physical injury to the worker.
Violence in the Workplace Hazards Some activities increase the risk of workplace violence • Handling cash • Protecting or securing valuables • Transporting people and goods • Public or community contact • Working alone, or with just a few people • Working late at night or very early morning
Violence in the Workplace Hazards Workplace harassment • Workplace harassment means engaging in a course of vexatious comment or conduct against a worker in a workplace that is known or ought reasonably to be known to be unwelcome. • Workplace harassment may include bullying, intimidating or offensive jokes or innuendos, displaying or circulating offensive pictures or materials, or offensive or intimidating phone calls.
What is a workplace inspection? • Workplace inspection is an integral part of the Occupational Health and Safety program • There are two main types of inspections: • Formal • Informal • Both are necessary and complement one another
Types of Inspections Formal • Regularly scheduled examinations of the workplace • Carried out as a team to ensuring a safe and healthy workplace • A checklist is used to recognize, evaluate and control hazards • Required by law Informal • A practiced awareness which identifies potential hazards of daily processes, conditions and activities • Part of daily routines such as a supervisor’s walk-through or a worker’s equipment check • Not regularly scheduled • Do not use a checklist
Purpose of Workplace Inspections • To identify existing and potential hazards • To monitor effectiveness of hazard controls • To recommend corrective actions • To determine the underlying causes of hazards • To educate, increase awareness and encourage communication regarding health and safety in the workplace • To listen to concerns of workers and supervisors • To meet legal requirement
The 4 Step Inspection Process • 1) Planning the inspection • 2) Conducting the inspection • 3) Completing the inspection report • 4) Follow-up and monitoring corrective actions
Step One Planning the inspection
Planning – Aspects to Examine • A workplace is “any land, premises, location or thing at, upon, in or near which a worker works” • At the University, workplace can be labs, offices, shops, kitchens, mechanical rooms, and washrooms • Inspection must include areas where no work is done regularly, such as office storage areas
Planning – Aspects to Examine • Every inspection planning must examine the where, what, who, when, and how.
Planning –WHERE • Determine WHERE the inspection will take place • Obtain a floor planand a list of relevant areas to your department • Floor plans can be obtained through Campus Facilities & Sustainability – email email@example.com • Request a listing of all your areas – email firstname.lastname@example.org • Location of machinery, equipment, fire exits, hallways, chemical storage etc relevant to your department must be documented and inspected
Planning –WHAT • Determine WHAT will be inspected • Look at all workplace elements • Environment – noise, vibration, lighting, temperature • Equipment – materials, tools, apparatus • Process – how the worker interacts with the environment and equipment in a series of tasks or operations • Review equipment inventory to learn what equipment/machinery is present and their hazards • Check technical safety data sheets or manufacturer’s safety manuals • Review chemical inventory to learn what chemicals are present and their hazards • Check MSDS binder
Planning –WHO • Determine WHOwill be conducting the inspection • Workplace inspection team must consist of at least: • One worker representative, and/or • Departmental safety officer from the department/area to be inspected • In addition, workplace inspection team may also consist of: • Joint Health and Safety Committee members • Supervisors or technical specialists • All members should receive training in workplace inspection in recognition, evaluation and control of hazards • All members should be familiar with the legislation and standards
Planning –WHEN • Determine WHEN inspections would be conducted • Inform EHSS of your inspection schedule which defines the specific area and date to be inspected • Ensure that the entire area within the department, school or centre is inspected at least annually (a portion to be inspected monthly) • Inspections can be themed, for example… • Month 1: Offices and storage/photocopy rooms • Month 2: Floor, aisles, stairs and landings • Month 3: Labs • Month 4: Tools and equipments • Month 5: First aid station/box • Month 6: Ergonomic factors • Month 7: Work practices and behaviour • Month 8: Hazardous Materials
Planning –HOW • Determine HOW inspections should be conducted • Review workplace elements (environment, equipment, and process) to determine if personal protective equipment is required during the inspection • Review and develop an Inspection Checklist • Obtain Workplace Inspection Report Form • Review past accident/incident reports • Identify causes of accidents/incidents • Check if recommended actions have been implemented
Step One: Inspection Planning Summary • Review Workplace Inspection Policy and Procedure • Review and develop an Inspection Checklist • Review previous inspection reports • Review applicable legislation and standards • Obtain floor plan and list of locations that belong to your department • Obtain workplace inspection report form • Determine what area will be inspected • Determine inspection schedule • Determine who will conduct the inspection • Determine what tools/equipments will be needed • Gather materials such as lab coats, safety boots, and other PPE
Step One: Inspection Planning Resources • Workplace Inspection Information • http://www.ryerson.ca/cehsm/programs/workplace_insp.html • Workplace Inspection Guideline • Workplace Inspection Report • Training Presentation • Various checklists
Step Two Conducting the inspection
What makes a successful inspection? • Look up, down, around and inside • Use the Inspection Checklist as a guide • Document all your findings, even if it may not be directly related to health and safety! • Clearly describe hazards and mark location on the floor plan or on your checklist • Record as you go along in case you forget • Involve workers in the inspection, interview them if possible, but never disrupt their work processes
What makes a successful inspection? …continued… • Pay particular attention to equipment with unsafe conditions due to stress, wear, impact, corrosion, or misuse • Report serious hazards immediately to the supervisor • Shut down any hazardous items that cannot be brought to a safe operating standard until repaired • Wear the appropriate PPE • Do not operate machinery – ask for demonstration by a qualified worker • Pay attention to ergonomic risks and worker behaviour
What if you don’t feel qualified? • Ask questions! • Ask for demonstrations • Ask someone who is qualified to accompany you • Some areas of the University will have to be inspected by someone who is authorized to be in that space and that might not be you – • Those areas must be identified so as not to slow down the inspection process
Examples of what to inspect • BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES • Is there loose material, debris, worn carpeting on the floor? • Are floors slippery, oily or wet? • Are stairways and aisles clear and unblocked? • Are windows sealed properly? • Are wall and ceiling fixtures fastened securely? • Are there stains on ceilings that may indicate a leak? • Are there moulds, water, rust or excessive dirt on ceilings? • ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS • Is there adequate ventilation? • Is there adequate lighting? • Is there any discomfort in temperature and humidity? • Is there excessive noise? • Are there harmful dust, mists, fumes, or vapours?
Examples of what to inspect • FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT • Exits are clear • Exit signs are visible • Extinguishers – are they easily accessible and have they been inspected in the last 6 months? • Sprinkler systems – are materials are stacked close to sprinkler heads on ceiling? • STORAGE FACILITIES • Cabinets, shelving units, closets, bins, racks • Are they stable? Are they overloaded? Are there sharp edges? • Are materials stored safely? Any heavy boxes placed on top shelves that may fall?
What are the hazards? • Boxes dangerously stacked on top of a cabinet • Housekeeping is needed
Examples of what to inspect • ELECTRICAL POWER COMPONENTS • Are extension cords used extensively? • Are electrical cords exposed in areas where employees walk? • Is electrical wiring properly concealed? • Are there cords/wires under the desk that may cause a tripping hazard?
What are the hazards? • Wires are tripping hazards • Electrical wires are placed need a sink with a puddle of water on the floor right beside it – potential for electrocution
Examples of what to inspect • CHEMICAL STORAGE • Are all chemical containers labeled? • Is there a designated storage area for flammable or • combustible or hazardous chemicals? • Are there supplier labels on the containers? • Are the containers in good condition free of loose seals or cracks?
What are the hazards? • No labeling on containers • Chemicals should be stored away in a designated area and not left in open area • Fire extinguisher should be mounted in wall • Poor Housekeeping
Examples of what to inspect • STRUCTURAL OPENINGS • Pits, sumps, shafts, floor openings including those usually kept covered • WARNING AND SIGNALING DEVICES • Strobes, crossing lights, horns, warning signs • ELEVATORS, ESCALATORS, DUMB-WAITERS, MAN-LIFTS • Cables, controls, safety devices • MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT • Conveyors, cranes, hoists, forklifts, carts, trolleys
Examples of what to inspect • CONTAINERS • Barrels, carboys, gas cylinders, flammable liquid containers, scrap bins, waste bins, vats, tanks • MOTORIZED VEHICLES • Automobiles, trucks, earth moving equipment, backhoes, mowers, graders, tractors, all-terrain vehicles, forklift trucks • ELECTRICAL SERVICE EQUIPMENT • Switches, power bars, outlets, ground-fault circuit interrupters
Examples of what to inspect • EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT • Spill kits, first aid kits, emergency telephones, emergency alarms • PERSONNEL SUPPORTING EQUIPMENT • Ladders • Are rungs stable? Are ladders secured? Are they free of water or mud? Is the floor where the ladder is raised free of debris? Are users maintaining a 3-point contact at all times? (3 limbs out of 4 are in contact with the ladder) • Scaffolds, scissor lifts, catwalks, platforms, life-lines, sling-chairs