WHAT IS DIET? Diet can be defined as the NORMAL FOOD WE EAT. BUT there are also SPECIAL DIETS ! FOR EXAMPLE To lose weight or gain weight diets. Diets because of moral values e.g.. Vegetarian Diets because of food allergies e.g. Wheat flour intolerance.
LOSING WEIGHT People who want to lose weight usually do so by using one of three possible methods • Decreasing kilocalorie energy intake. • Increasing kilocalorie energy expenditure. • Using a combination of both.
SO WHAT ARE KILOCALORIES ? Energy can be measured using JOULES or CALORIES. When large units are involved, such as they are in diets, the term KILOCALORIE is used. 1 kilocalorie =1000 calories.
WHAT IS ENERGY BALANCE ? Energy balance means taking in (Eating) and using up (Through work, exercise etc) an equal number of calories or Kilocalories. We all have our own metabolism or rate of using up energy- this is known as our METABOLIC RATE.
This is why some people may eat less food but actually put on weight, whilst others appear to be able to eat anything without putting on a pound. Males between 15 and 18 need about 2750 calories a day. Females between 15 and 18 need about 2100 calories a day.
WHEN EXERCISING OR DOING ANY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY YOU BURN UP CALORIES. FOR EXAMPLE:-
WHAT IS OVERWEIGHT ? Having weight in excess of normal. Not harmful unless it is accompanied by over fatness.
FOR EXAMPLE Men having more than 19% of total body composition as FAT. Women having more than 26% of total body composition as FAT.
WHAT IS OBESE OR OBESITY ? Extreme overweight.
WHAT FACTORS AFFECT AN INDIVIDUAL’S DIET ? Each individual sportsperson’s diet will depend on a number of factors. Their natural body build (SOMATOTYPE) Their particular sport The position they play in their particular sport CAN YOU GIVE EXAMPLES
WHAT IS OPTIMUM WEIGHT ? Optimum weight is “The Most Favourable” Most sportspeople get to know the weight at which they perform best and make an effort to keep within certain limits of that OPTIMUM WEIGHT.
WHAT AFFECTS OPTIMUM WEIGHT ? • Height • Gender • Bone Structure • Muscle Girth
IS WEIGHT IMPORTANT IN SPORT ? Give examples in sport where weight is important.
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM WITH SPORTSPEOPLE HAVING TO BE UNDERWEIGHT FOR THEIR SPORT ?
WHAT EATING DISORDERS CAN OCCUR IF A PERSON TRIES TO LOSE WEIGHT ? Anorexia nervosa is the condition where, in an effort to become thin, some people (often teenage girls ) lose their “Appetite”.
Bulimia nervosa is a condition in which the person is obsessed with the fear of becoming “Fat”. Bulimics eat vast amounts of food, then vomit or use laxatives to control their weight
Carbohydrates are important because they maintain our body’s energy stores. There are 2 types of carbohydrate. • Sugars • Starch Carbohydrates are stored in the muscle and the liver as GLYCOGEN. This can quickly be converted into glucose and used as ENERGY in the Muscles. It is the Starches which provide the Energy we need when we take part in sport.
Fat is important because it also provides Energy and helps to make other things work. There are 3 types of Fat. • Saturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Monounsaturated fats
Protein also provides Energy but its main function is as a body builder and repairer when recovering from injury. Protein comes from 2 types of food. • Animal protein as found in meat, poultry and fish and dairy products • Plant or vegetable protein as found in beans, nuts, bread, potatoes, cereals, pasta and rice which are also a source of carbohydrate.
Vitamins are only required in small quantities and are needed for: • Good vision • Good skin • Red blood cell formation • Healing • Healthy bones and teeth • Blood clotting
Minerals are inorganic substances that our bodies need for a variety of functions. Examples are: • Calcium- vital to health especially during growth in childhood. • Iron- linked with the blood. A lack of iron can lead to ANAEMIA which makes people very tired and irritable.
Water is a means of transport for nutrients, waste and hormones. It also controls the distribution of body salts. What drink do Athletes often have after strenuous exercise ?