Characteristics of Organisms • Take in materials, convert into energy, and release waste • Chemical organization – made of cells • Complex structural organization • Contain DNA-instructions for maintaining everything • Sense and react to changes in environment • Grow and Develop • Reproduce (sexually or asexually) • Communicate • Move under THEIR own power
What is Bioenergetics? The study of energy and energy flow in living systems(environments) and the organisms (plants and animals) that utilize them
Energy Capacity to do work or cause change. Required by all organisms • May be Chemical or Free energy
Chemical Energy is the energy stored in organic molecules • Free energy is the energy available to do work
Obtaining Energy Autotrophs: obtain energy and nutrients from the sun or chemicals. 1. Photoautotroph: Capture energy from the sun to make organic compounds through photosynthesis 2. Chemoautotroph: Capture free energy from chemicals to make organic compounds through chemosynthesis.
Obtaining Energy Heterotrophs: obtain energy and nutrients from other organisms. 1. Carnivore: Meat eater 2. Herbivore: Plant eater 3. Omnivore: Meat and Plant eater
Releasing Energy • Autotrophs and Heterotrophs carry out chemical reactions that release the free energy in organic compounds in a process called… Cellular Respiration
ENERGY • Exists in many forms • Heat, light, chemical energy, electrical energy
Most Energy becomes HEAT • A flashlight converts the chemical energy stored in batteries into light and heat. Most of the energy is converted to heat. Only a small percentage of the original energy in the battery is converted into light energy.
Energy Flow • Energy flows from the environment through producers to consumers and finally to decomposers.
Energy Flow cont… • Producers:Produce food other organisms use • Consumers: Consume plants and other organisms for food • Decomposers: Break down and use dead plants and animals for food
Energy Flow in Food Chains • Food chains describe the eating relationships or transfer of energy in one direction between organisms in an ecosystem In this simple food chain, the grass generates energy it gathers fromthe sun through photosynthesis, which is then passed along to thegrasshopper, the frog, the snake, and finally the hawk.
Energy Flow in Food Webs • Food webs show how energy and nutrients flow throughout overlapping food chains of an ecosystem. • The arrow points to whom is getting the energy/nutrients
Biosphere • Life is found in air, on land, and in fresh and salt water. • The BIOSPHEREis the portion of Earth that supports living things. • The Biosphere includes all ecosystems(living and nonliving components of an area) which include many habitats (where particular organisms live).
Ecosystems • Abiotic factors- the nonliving parts of an organism’s environment. • Examplesinclude air currents, temperature, moisture, light, and soil. • Abiotic factors affect an organism’s life.
Biotic factors- all the living organisms that inhabit an environment. • Examples include Bear, fish, insects, bacteria • All organisms depend on others directly or indirectly for food, shelter, reproduction, or protection.
First Law of Thermodynamics • The First Law of Thermodynamics is the Law of Conservation of Energy. This law states that energy cannot be created, nor can it be destroyed. The energy of the universe is constant. However, that energy can change forms: electricity, light, heat, and sound are all different forms of energy. • This useful energy doesn’t just disappear; rather, it becomes energy that cannot be utilized by the process.
Second Law of Thermodynamics • The direction of energy flow is from high to low quality forms. Each conversion results in the production of energy (as HEAT – which is unavailable for work). • The Second Law of Thermodynamics is the Law of Increasing Entropy. This law states that the universe is always moving toward a greater state of disorder, or entropy.
Anything that happens spontaneously, that is, without an input of energy, will result in molecules being more disorganized, more random, more mixed together, and more spread out. The law of increasing entropy also explains why houses don’t spontaneously assemble from a pile of wood on the lawn, spills don’t mop themselves up, and dust doesn’t gather itself into a neat pile, ready to be swept up. Such processes that result in an increase of organization (that is, a decrease in entropy) require energy input and are not spontaneous.
Total energy of the universe remains the same (1st law). It is, however randomly dispersed as heat energy-an unusable form of energy for organisms – which increases the entropy of the universe (2nd law)
-Order is important. Our bodies represent a high degree of order: atoms and molecules are meticulously organized into a complex system ranging in scale from the microscopic to the macroscopic. -Atoms are organized into molecules, which are organized into cells, which are in turn organized into the organs, bones, muscles, and skin that make up the human body.
Gibbs Free Energy Equation • Free energy = available energy • Enthalpy (H) = total energy of a system • ball rolling down hill, glucose molecule • Entropy (S) = disorder of a system • Diffusion, messy room • Temperature (T) = in Kelvin C+273 • Cherry bomb will not explode unless temp is increased…more spontaneous with increase in temp • All these factors can affect the spontenaity of a chemical reaction
Gibbs Free Energy (G) - The energy associated with a chemical reaction that can be used to do work. The free energy of a system is the sum of its enthalpy (H) plus the product of the temperature (Kelvin) and the entropy (S) of the system: G < 0 = spontanteous, exergonic reaction, ex: cell respiration G > 0 = not spontaneous, endergonic, ex: photosynthesis G = 0 = equilibrium
2.6 Metabolism & Energy Transfer • To release chemical energy to perform work…cells must break and make chemical bonds = chemical reaction
Enzymes • All cells have them • They lower the activation energy of chemical reactions..they are catalysts • They are reusable • They work properly in certain conditions • At certain temperatures, certain pH range, certain salinity, etc. • The name of the enzyme usually ends in ase • Catalase, sucrase, lactase, etc.
Without Enzyme With Enzyme Free Energy Free energy of activation Reactants Products Progress of the reaction Enzymes
How Enzymes Work • Specific enzymes catalyze specific reactions
Active Site • The structure of an enzyme has a small area called an Active Site • The active site brings the substrate and enzyme closer together
Substrate • Reactant molecule of a reaction. What fits into the active site. • This is how it goes… • The substrate fits into the active site of an enzyme, activation energy is lowered, chemical reaction from substrate to product occurs, the product breaks away from the enzyme.
Induced Fit Model Enzyme changes shape when it binds its substrate
The Enzyme-catalyzed Reaction • Once the newly formed molecules (or products) break away from the enzyme, the enzyme is unchanged. • Many reactions are reversible (two molecules combine to form one, one molecule broken to form two)
Enzyme reactions can be faster at higher temps but above certain temps, out of a certain pH range, or without certain ions…enzymes can unfold or Denature. • Denaturationrenders the enzyme useless.
Factors that affect efficiency of an enzyme… • Inhibitors • Allosteric factors • pH • Temperature • Salinity (salt concentration) • Enzyme concentration • Substrate concentration
Inhibitors • Competitive Inhibitors- have similar structure to the enzymes substrate, so they compete with the substrate for the active site of an enzyme. • Noncompetitive Inhibitors- do not attach to the active site and block the enzyme-substrate complex from forming. They react with portions of the active site, which results in the changing of its shape so that it can no longer bind with the substrate.
Allosteric regulators • Some enzymes have special areas other than active site…regulatory site. Any molecule that attaches to the regulatory site is called an allosteric factor. • Join with regulatory site and change the shape of the entire enzyme preventing it from binding with the substrate. • Not all allosteric factors are bad, some actually bring the enzyme and substrate together.
pH & Temperature • Enzymes function best in a particular pH. • If too many ions (H+ or OH-) are present, the enzyme may denature (unfold). • To a certain extent, high temps increases the rate of an enzymes activity. Too high temperatures..the enzyme can denature.
Enzyme/substrate concentration For a given enzyme concentration, the rate of reaction increases with increasing substrate concentration up to a point, above which any further increase in substrate concentration produces no significant change in reaction rate. This is because the active sites of the enzyme molecules at any given moment are virtually saturated with substrate.
To avoid wasting energy, ATP binds an enzyme in catabolism that shuts the enzyme off, effectively shifting the cell to an anabolic state. • This process is called feedback inhibition.