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Section 1-1

The Renaissance. Main Ideas. Between 1350 and 1550, Italian intellectuals believed they had entered a new age of human achievement. . City-states were the centers of political, economic, and social life in Renaissance Italy. . Key Terms. urban society . mercenary  dowry. secular .

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Section 1-1

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  1. The Renaissance Main Ideas • Between 1350 and 1550, Italian intellectuals believed they had entered a new age of human achievement.  • City-states were the centers of political, economic, and social life in Renaissance Italy.  Key Terms • urban society  • mercenary  • dowry • secular  Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-1

  2. The three-volume Gutenberg Bible was organized into two 42-line columns per page. In the later stages of production, six people worked simultaneously on composing the type. About 40 Gutenberg Bibles are still in existence, including perfect copies in the U.S. Library of Congress, the French Bibliothèque Nationale, and the British Library. Section 1-6

  3. The Italian Renaissance • The word renaissance means rebirth.  • occurred between 1350 and 1550. • Italy of the Renaissance was largely an urban society. • The powerful city-states of the Middle Ages became political, economic, and social centers. • A secular, or worldly, viewpoint developed in this urban society as increasing wealth created new opportunities for material enjoyment. • During the Renaissance, the power of the Church declined & society recovered from the instability of the Middle Ages. (pages 157–158) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

  4. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) • Part of this recovery was a rebirth of interest in the ancient Greek and Roman cultures. • A new view of human beings that emphasized individual ability and worth emerged in the Renaissance. • The well-rounded, universal person was capable of achievements in many areas of life. • For example, Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematician. • The upper classes were more affected by the Italian Renaissance than the lower classes, and they embraced its ideals more. (pages 157–158) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-9

  5. The Italian Renaissance (cont.) What term in English expresses the Renaissance ideal of a well-rounded, multi-talented person? The term is Renaissance man. (pages 157–158) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer. Section 1-12

  6. The Italian States • The northern and central Italian city-states of Milan, Venice,and Florenceplayed crucial roles in the Italian politics of the time. • They prospered from trade with the Byzantine, Islamic, and Mediterranean civilizations. • They set up trading centers in the east during the Crusades, and they exchanged goods with merchants in England and the Netherlands. • Milan was located in northern Italy at the crossroads of the main trade routes from Italian coastal cities to the Alpine passes. • Venice was a link between Asia and western Europe. • Due to its trade empire, Venice was an international power. (pages 158–160) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

  7. The Italian States (cont.) • The republic of Florence dominated the Tuscany region. • In the 14th cent, Florence was established as a major city-state. • 1434 - Cosimo de’ Medicitook control of Florence. • He, and later his grandson Lorenzo de’ Medici,dominated Florence when it was the cultural center of Italy. • 1494 - Charles VIII of France led an army of 30,000 men into Italy. • Northern Italian states asked Spain to help. • For the next 30 years, France and Spain made Italy their battleground. (pages 158–160) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-16

  8. The Italian States (cont.) What are the world’s largest trading cities today? Possible answers: New York, Tokyo, Paris, and Rome are some of the world’s largest trading cities today. (pages 158–160) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer. Section 1-21

  9. Machiavelli and the New Statecraft • The Princeby Niccolò Machiavelliis one of the most influential works on political power in the western world. • It concerns how to get and keep political power. • Previously authors had stressed that princes should be ethical and follow Christian principles. • Machiavelli argued the prince’s attitude toward power should be based on understanding that human nature is self-interested. • A prince, therefore, should not act on moral principles but on behalf of the interests of the state • Machiavelli was among the first to abandon morality as the basis for analyzing political activity. • His views influenced political leaders who followed. (pages 160–161) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-22

  10. Machiavelli and the New Statecraft (cont.) Should political leaders adhere to basic moral principles when pursuing the state’s affairs or just look out for the state’s interests? Possible answer: It may be in a state’s interest to adhere to fundamental moral principles. (pages 160–161) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer. Section 1-24

  11. Renaissance Society • The Renaissance saw some changes in the medieval division of society into three estates, or social classes. • The noble or aristocrat was expected to fulfill certain ideals. • Baldassare Castiglione expressed these in The Book of the Courtier. • Nobles were expected to have talent, character, and grace. • They also had to develop two skills: • perform military and physical exercises • gain a classical education and enrich life with the arts. • The goal of the perfect noble was to serve his prince honestly. (pages 161–163) Section 1-25

  12. Renaissance Society (cont.) • Peasants made up 85-90% of European population, except in highly urban centers. • Patricians, burghers, and workers and the unemployed made up the three classes of the towns. • Patricians - had wealth from trade, banking, and industry. • Burghers - shopkeepers, artisans, & guild members who provided goods and services for the townspeople. • Workers – simple manual laborers who made pitiful wages. • During the late 1300s and the 1400s, urban poverty increased dramatically. (pages 161–163) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-28

  13. Renaissance Society (cont.) • To maintain the family, parents arranged marriages to strengthen family or business ties. • families was signed with a marriage contract, which included the terms of the dowry (a sum of money the bride’s family paid to the groom.) • The father-husband was the center of the Italian family. • He gave it his name, managed the finances, & made decisions that determined his children’s lives. • The mother’s role was to supervise the household. • The father’s authority over his children was absolute • Children did not become adults simply by reaching an age. • the father had to go before a judge & formally free a child from his authority for that person to be recognized as an adult. (pages 161–163) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information. Section 1-30

  14. Renaissance Society (cont.) What are the criteria that indicate a person has reached adulthood today? (pages 161–163) Section 1-33

  15. Checking for Understanding Define Match each definition in the left column with the appropriate term in the right column. __ 1. a system in which cities are the center of political, economic, and social life __ 2. a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride’s parents to her husband, or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wife __ 3. a soldier who sells his services to the highest bidder __ 4. worldly A. urban society B. secular C. mercenary D. dowry A D C B Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answers. Section 1-34

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