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Immunization Update

Immunization Update

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Immunization Update

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  1. Immunization Update Andrew Kroger, MD, MPH National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases North Carolina Statewide Immunization Conference Greensboro, NC August 10, 2011

  2. Disclosures Andrew Kroger is a federal government employee with no financial interest or conflict with the manufacturer of any product named in this presentation Andrew Kroger will not discuss a vaccine not currently licensed by the FDA

  3. Disclosures • Andrew Kroger will discuss off-label uses meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) and tetanus-reduced-diphtheria-toxoid acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap)

  4. National Center for Immunization & Respiratory Diseases Comparison of 20th Century Annual Morbidity and Current Morbidity: Vaccine-Preventable Diseases †Source: JAMA. 2007;298(18):2155-2163 † †Source: CDC. MMWR January 7, 2011;59(52);1704-1716. (provisional MMWR week 52 data) * 16 type b and 254 unknown serotype (< 5 years of age)

  5. What’s New in Immunization MCV4 vaccine Measles Outbreaks Influenza Vaccine Tdap vaccine

  6. Adult Immunization ScheduleIndications by Age Group - 2011

  7. Adult Immunization ScheduleIndications by Condition - 2011

  8. Persons at Highest Risk of Meningococcal Disease or Suboptimal Vaccine Response Complement deficiency • High-risk of disease • Very high antibody titer required to compensate for complement deficiency Asplenia • High-risk of disease • evidence of suboptimal response

  9. Persons with Suboptimal Vaccine Response • HIV infection • evidence of suboptimal response • Single dose primary series may not be sufficient to confer protection for persons with these high-risk conditions

  10. MCV4 Primary Series Recommendation MMWR 2011;60(No. 3):72-6. Administer 2 doses of MCV4 at least 8 weeks apart to persons with persistent complement component deficiency and anatomic or functional asplenia

  11. MCV4 Primary Series Recommendation HIV infection is not an indication for MCV4 vaccination However, some persons with HIV infection should receive MCV4 (adolescents, some international travelers, microbiologists, etc) Persons with HIV infection who are vaccinated with MCV4 should receive 2 doses at least 8 weeks apart MMWR 2011;60(No. 3):72-6.

  12. FDA Approval: Menactra • June 2011: Menactra approved for high-risk infants • 2 dose series at 9 months and 12 months

  13. New MCV4 Recommendations Certain persons recommended for infant series Persistent complement component deficiency Travelers to high-risk meningococcal areas Persons in a meningococcal outbreak HIV infection (permitted)

  14. New MCV4 Recommendations • Infant vaccination 2 dose series • Dose 1: 9 months • Dose 2: 12 months • Minimum interval between doses 2 months

  15. Infant Vaccination: Asplenia • Persons with functional or anatomic asplenia NOT recommended for infant vaccination • Still recommended for 2 dose series beginning at age 2 years

  16. Asplenia • Persons with asplenia are at higher risk for invasive pneumococcal disease • Dose of PCV13 recommended at 12 – 18 months of age • Evidence of interaction between PCV13 and MCV4 affecting the immune response to PCV13 • Because of the risk of interaction, MCV4 not recommended for asplenic children when they should be receiving PCV13

  17. Rates of Meningococcal Disease (C and Y) by Age, 1999-2008 Age for routine vaccination Active Bacterial Core surveillance (ABCs), 1998-2008

  18. Meningococcal Conjugate (MCV4) Routine Revaccination • In its 2005 recommendations for MCV, ACIP made no recommendation about revaccination pending the availability of additional data • Serologic data are now available from the manufacturer that show significant decline in antibody 3-5 years after vaccination although few “breakthrough” cases have been reported MMWR 2009;58(No. 37):1042-3

  19. Seroprotection Rates Following MCV Vaccination MMWR 2009;58(No. 37):1042-3

  20. New MCV4 Recommendations* *off-label recommendation. MMWR 2011;60(No. 3):72-6. • administer MCV4 at age 11 or 12 years with a booster dose at 16 years of age • administer 1 dose at age 13 through 15 years if not previously vaccinated • for persons vaccinated at age 13 through 15 years administer a 1-time booster dose is recommended, preferably at or after 16 through 18 years of age

  21. New MCV4 Adolescent Vaccination Recommendations The minimum interval between doses is 8 weeks A booster dose is not recommended for healthy persons if the first dose is administered at 16-21 years of age The booster dose is generally not recommended after the 19th birthday; however, both an initial dose and/or a booster dose can be given to someone entering college between 19 through 21 years old. Booster dose is permitted if an individual is already identified as being in college between 19 through 21 years old.

  22. MCV4 vs MPSV4 • Conjugate vaccines boost the immune response • If MPSV4 is substituted for MCV4 for the booster dose, or for a primary series dose in high-risk, the dose should be repeated

  23. MCV Revaccination Recommendations • Other high-risk persons recommended for revaccination • microbiologists with prolonged exposure to Neisseria meningitidis • frequent travelers to or persons living in areas with high rates of meningococcal disease • Revaccinate every 5 years as long as the person remains at increased risk • Every 3 years if first dose given between 2 through 6 years of age • MCV4 for persons 2 through 55 years of age • MPSV for persons 56 years and older

  24. Measles As of June 17, 2011 Over 156 cases of measles reported in U.S. Highest number since 1996

  25. MMR • A dose is recommended for travelers between 6 through 12 months of age • Does NOT count toward the two dose routine series • High-risk countries: France, India (generally Europe, Africa, Asia)

  26. Influenza

  27. 2011-2012 Influenza Vaccine Composition • Same strains this year as last year: • A/California/7/2009-like H1N1 • A/Perth/16/2009-like H3N2 • B/Brisbane/60/2008

  28. Duration of Immunity Following Influenza Vaccination • Skowronski et al. J Infect Dis 2008;197:490-502 • Protection against viruses that are similar antigenically to those contained in the vaccine extends for at least 6-8 months • There is no clear evidence that immunity declines more rapidly in the elderly • Additional vaccine doses during the same season do not increase the antibody response • The frequency of breakthrough infections has not been shown to be higher among persons vaccinated early in the season

  29. Influenza Vaccination Recommendation • Annual influenza vaccination is now recommended for every person in the United States 6 months of age and older MMWR 2010;59(RR-8)

  30. Influenza Vaccine Presentations 2011-2012 SDS=single dose syringe; SDV=single dose vial; MDV=multidose vial

  31. Fluzone High-Dose Manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur Contains 4 X amount of influenza antigen than regular Fluzone Approved only for persons 65 years and older Produced higher antibody levels; slightly higher local reactions Studies underway to assess relative effectiveness These expected for the 2012-2013 season No preference stated by ACIP for HD or regular influenza vaccination

  32. Fluzone Intradermal • Licensed by FDA in May 2011 • Approved only for persons 18 through 64 years of age • Dose is 0.1 mL administered in the deltoid area by a specially designed microneedle and injector system • Formulated to contain more HA (27 mcg) than a 0.1 mL dose of regular Fluzone formulation (9 mcg)

  33. Inactivated Influenza VaccineSchedule Age Group 6-35 mos 3-8 yrs 9 yrs and older No. Doses 1 or 2 1 or 2 1 Dose 0.25 mL 0.50 mL 0.50 mL

  34. Influenza Vaccination Schedule • One dose is recommended for most people • 2 doses are recommended for children 6 months through 8 years of age who did not receive influenza vaccine during the 2010-2011 season

  35. Afluria • CSL vaccine associated with febrile seizures • Risk seen in children 6 months through 4 years of age • Risk of fever seen in children 5 years through 8 years • Can use Afluria in high-risk children 5 years through 8 years if no other age-approved formulation is available

  36. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Indications Persons 2 through 49 years of age who are healthy (i.e., do not have an underlying medical condition that increases the risk of complication of influenza) who are not pregnant who do not have contact with a severely immunosuppressed person (hospitalized and in isolation) MMWR 2010;59(RR-8)

  37. Influenza Vaccine Screening • Evidence that persons with mild, moderate, or severe allergy to eggs can tolerate TIV • Quantity of ovalbumin (egg protein) in dose of TIV less than 0.7 mcg • Severe egg allergy now a precaution, not a contraindication for TIV

  38. Tdap • Tdap reduces the risk of pertussis by 60% - 80% • Tdap approved ages • 10 years and older for Boostrix • 11 through 64 years for Adacel • Tdap not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for children 7 years through 9 years Wei SC et al. Clin Infect Dis 2010;51:315-21

  39. Tdap Recommendations for Adolescents/Adults • Persons 11 through 64 years of age who have not received Tdap should receive a dose followed by Td booster doses every 10 years • Adolescents should preferably receive Tdap at the 11 to 12 year-old preventive healthcare visit MMWR 2011; 60 (No. 1):13-5

  40. New Tdap Recommendation for Adults • MMWR 2011; 60 (No. 1):13-5 • Persons 65 years old or older who anticipate or have close contact with an infant should receive a dose of Tdap if not already received • This is an off-label recommendation if you use Adacel

  41. New Tdap Recommendations for Adolescents • Persons 7 through 10 years of age who are not fully immunized against pertussis (including those never vaccinated or with unknown pertussis vaccination status) should receive a single dose of Tdap off-label recommendation. MMWR 2011; 60 (No. 1):13-5

  42. New Tdap Recommendations for Adolescents MMWR 2011; 60 (No. 1):13-5 • “Not fully immunized” • fewer than 4 doses of DTaP • 4 doses of DTaP and last dose was prior to age 4 years

  43. MMWR 2011; 60 (No. 1):13-5

  44. Tdap Adverse Event Rates by Interval Since Previous Td/TT Talbot et al. Vaccine 2010;28:8001-7

  45. New Tdap Interval Recommendations* *off-label recommendation. MMWR 2011; 60 (No. 1):13-5 Tdap can be administered regardless of the interval since the last tetanus and diphtheria containing vaccine ACIP concluded that while longer intervals between Td and Tdap vaccination could decrease the occurrence of local reactions, the benefits of protection against pertussis outweigh the potential risk for adverse events

  46. Tdap and Healthcare Personnel (HCP)* *off-label provisional ACIP recommendation. Approved by ACIP on Feb 23, 2011 – on CDC website HCP, regardless of age, should receive a single dose of Tdap as soon as feasible if they have not previously received Tdap and regardless of the time since last Td dose Post-exposure prophylaxis should be provided to HCP even if vaccinated, although observation for symptoms of pertussis an option if provider does NOT see hospitalized neonates or pregnant women