Chapter 8: Errors, Failures, and Risk See Dilbert cartoons about errors, failures, and risk: http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2010-05-20/ http://dilbert.com/strips/comic/2006-12-10/\
Reminders Video scene due tonight at 11:59 • Post to YouTube as “unlisted” • Submit .txt file to OSBLE with YouTube link Today’s reading quiz covers 8.1 and 8.2
Quiz Question 1 The cause of computer system failures can be attributed to faulty design sloppy implementation poor user interfaces All of the above None of the above
Answer : E(See p. 405) Computer software is inherently complex and will contain bugs • How much risk should we accept? • Are some risks just tradeoffs for the benefits that the software provides? Three useful perspectives • Computer users, who need to understand limitations of technology • Computer professionals, who need become better at what they do • Educated members of society, who make personal, social, legal and political decisions based on risks of computers
Quiz Question 2 The following is not a factor that contributes to the problems that computer databases cause for people: A large population Automated processing without human intervention Inaccurate biometric data Errors in data entry Lack of accountability for errors
Answer: CSeveral Factors Contribute to Database Problems A large population (many with similar names) Automated processing can’t always recognize special cases or doesn’t use common sense Overconfidence in accuracy of data Human errors in data entry Data are not updated or maintained Humans aren’t accountable for problems (blame it on computer!)
Quiz Question 3 In the context of Ch. 8, RSI stands for Redundant System Inputs Recalibrated System Integrity Repetitive Safety Isometrics Redundant Safety Information None of the above
Answer: RSI = Repetitive Strain Injuries (E)(see gray box on p. 411) Have you experienced pain from using a keyboard or mobile device for extended periods of time? A: Yes B: No What can you do to prevent this?
Quiz Question 4 A strategy mentioned by the book for making electronic voting machines less vulnerable to fraud and sabotage is requiring the machines to be housed in a locked cabinet requiring the software they use to be public keeping the software they use secret All of the above None of the above
Answer: B (see p. 416)Electronic Voting has Pros and Cons With your group discuss the pros and cons of electronic voting for about 90 seconds Can you cite recent elections in which it worked or didn’t work?
Quiz Question 5 The book discusses the failures of complex computer systems at three different airports. What was a common reason all three failed? They had not undergone sufficient testing They were unable to handle incorrect user input They were too complex to work properly None of the above
Answer: ASee pp. 418-419 What were the three airports? There was immense political pressure to deploy these systems quickly Not enough time was allocated for thorough testing of the software, nor was adequate time allocated to properly train human workers in the use of the software Cite examples of abandoned computer systems in which millions or even billions of dollars were invested.
Quiz Question 6 systems are, thus requiring special adaptations to work with . Operating, difficult to program, antivirus software legacy, out-of-date, more modern systems safety-critical, highly complex, computer software Voting, proprietary, elections
Answer: B (see p. 420)Legacy Systems Have Caused Many Problems Large computer systems were originally used primarily in the banking and airline industries, and also by the government It is difficult for these systems to go “off-line” so that they can be replaced by new systems Hence, they often continue to be used, even though they are outdated, difficult to use, and difficult to maintain
Quiz Question 7 In the first decade of the 21st century, there was one fatal accident per commercial flights. This was than the rate of the previous decade. 10,000; higher 100,000; lower 1 million, higher 4 million, lower None of the above
Answer: DAirline Travel is Astonishingly Safe! Several computer-based innovations have contributed to airline travel’s improving safety record (60% safer than a decade ago) • Name two mentioned in the book But: in times of crisis, should a pilot trust these systems or her own instincts?
Quiz Question 8 The following is true of the Therac-25 case: It’s a shining example of a device that was built with safety in mind. It teaches dramatic lessons about the negative impacts of poorly-designed software on human life. It shows that the known problems of a device can be avoided by competent operators of the device. None of the above
Question 8 Answer B. (See p. 425)
Quiz Question 9 Why did the Therac-6 and Therac-20, both predecessors to the Therac-25, not have the same safety problems as the Therac-25? They were generally used by operators with more skill. They didn’t have as strong an electron beam. They were controlled by better-designed software. They had a hardware interlock mechanism that prevented the beam from firing in unsafe conditions. Non of the above
Quiz Question 9 Answer D. See p. 426
Quiz Question 10 One of the software errors that caused the Therac-25 malfunctions was due to A variable being incremented instead of set to a fixed value. A loop iterating one too many times An erroneous conditional check All of the above None of the above
Quiz Question 10 Answer (See p. 427) What was the other major software error?
Discussion Exercise Assignments 8.36: • Hospital that used machine • Prosecuting attorney: Error 404, Discotech, Tier III, Pac4, • Defense attorney: Breakfast Club, CAAK, Skynet, Prestige Worldwide • Company that made the machine • Prosecuting attorney: FAM, Pangea, CADD, Thizzle • Defense attorney: Brandon, Rock-It, Sponge Bob, SPAMD • Programmer who wrote the software • Prosecuting attorney: Batman Symbol, Skillz that Killz, Hide ‘Yo Kids • Defense attorney: Emoticons, Error 403 Forbidden, SkyBlue, iTeam