Infant, Childhood, and Adolescent Disorders SW 593 Assessment & Diagnosis
Mental Retardation • Mild – IQ score between 55-70 • Moderate – IQ score between 35-40 to 50-55 • Severe: IQ score between 20-25 to 35-40 • Profound: IQ score below 20-25 • This is an Axis II diagnosis due the chronic, long-term nature of the problem
Learning Disorders • Distinguished by below average cognitive or academic functioning when compared to a person’s intellectual capacity • A discrepancy of two standard deviations is necessary to meet this classification.
Motor Skills Disorders • Distinguished by problems with physical or perceptual coordination. • This disorder is not diagnosed if the child’s problems are due to a medical condition or are not significantly greater than those motor functioning problems normally found in children with mental retardation.
Communication Disorders • Distinguished by problems in the area of language or speech development. • Five diagnoses are included in this general category: • Expressive language • Mixed receptive – expressive language • Phonological disorder • Stuttering • Communication disorder NOS
Pervasive Development Disorders • Distinguished by serious problems with an array of social and developmental delays and disabilities. • Children have severe impairment is social functioning and communication as well as severely restricted behaviors, interests, and activities. • Neurological dysfunction is present in all of these disorders.
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders • Distinguished by problems with attention and behavioral conduct. • Frequently diagnosed in school-age children. • ADHD is composed of two major symptom categories: • Inattention • Hyperactivity/impulsivity
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders • A child may be diagnosed with either of these syndromes or with both of them. • Children with ADHD begin to show symptoms of the disorder before the age of 7. • Oppositional Defiant disorder will display at least four disruptive, negative, and defiant behaviors for at least 6 months. • A child with ODD does not engage in unlawful behaviors.
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders • Conduct disorder children do participate in activities that violate social norms and may constitute illegal and criminal behaviors. • Four broad categories: • Aggression to people or animals • Destruction of property • Deceitfulness or theft • Serious violations of rules • These behaviors are repetitive and form a pattern that significantly impairs social or academic functioning.
Feeding and Eating Disorders • Distinguished by problems with the process of eating and retaining food or eating inappropriate food. • Pica • Rumination disorder • Feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood
Elimination Disorders • Distinguished by problems with bowel or bladder control. • Encopresis is diagnosed in children 4 years of age or older. • Enuresis is marked by repeated urination in bed or clothing at least twice a week for at least 3 months.
Tic Disorders • Distinguished by irresistible movements and/or vocal sounds. • Tourette’s syndrome is identified by having both motor and vocal tics.
Other disorders • Separation anxiety disorder • Selective mutism • Reactive attachment • Stereotypic movement • Disorder of Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence NOS