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Aesthetics. Introduction to aesthetics. Introduction to Aesthetics. What is Aesthetics? Aesthetics Some Questions Normative. Introduction to Aesthetics. Spectrum of Aesthetics Introduction Absolutism Objectivism Relativism Subjectivism Moral Nihilism Moral Skepticism
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Aesthetics Introduction to aesthetics
Introduction to Aesthetics • What is Aesthetics? • Aesthetics • Some Questions • Normative
Introduction to Aesthetics • Spectrum of Aesthetics • Introduction • Absolutism • Objectivism • Relativism • Subjectivism • Moral Nihilism • Moral Skepticism • Aestheticians, Art Critics and Artists
Aesthetics Reasoning • Statements of Value vs Statements of Fact • Value Statements/matters of value • Factual statements/matters of fact • Objective and subjective statements • Objective-subjective dispute • Non-objectivity and reasoning
Aesthetics Reasoning • Aesthetic Issue • Issue • Aesthetic Issue • Resolution • Components • Facts • Relevant Facts • Agreement & Disagreement • Resolution of Factual Issues
Ethical Reasoning • Concepts • Relevant Concepts • Agreement & Disagreement • Resolution of Conceptual Issues • Aesthetics/Values • Morality • Resolution • Values & Facts • Value Statements/Matters of Value • Factual Statements/Matters of Fact
Ethical Reasoning • Objectivity & Subjectivity • Objective Statement • Subjective Statement • Objective-Subjective Dispute
Argument Basics • Argument Concepts • Defined • General Assessment: Reasoning • General Assessment: Are the Premises True?
Deductive Arguments • Introduction to Deductive Arguments • Defined • Use • Assessment • Valid/Invalid, Sound/Unsound • Some Common Valid Deductive Arguments • Reductio Ad Adsurdum • Defined • Form #1/Form #2 • Example
Inductive Arguments • Introduction to Inductive Arguments • Defined • Assessment • Strong & Weak Arguments
Analogical Argument • Introduction • Definition • Uses • Form • Informal • Strict Form • Premise 1: X has properties P, Q, and R. • Premise 2: Y has properties P, Q, and R. • Premise 3: X has property Z as well. • Conclusion: Y has property Z.
Analogical Argument • Assessment • The strength of the argument depends on • The number of properties X & Y have in common. • The relevance of the shared properties to Z. • Whether X & Y have relevant dissimilarities. • Example
Argument from/by Example • Introduction • Defined • Form • Informal • Form Premise 1: Example 1 is an example that supports claim P. Premise 2: Example 2 is an example that supports claim P. Premise n: Example n is an example that supports claim C. Conclusion: Claim P is true.
Argument from/by Example • Standards of Assessment • Standards • The more examples, the stronger the argument. • The examples must be relevant. • The examples must be specific & clearly identified. • Counter-examples must be considered.
Argument from Authority • Introduction • Defined • Use • Form • Premise 1: Person A is an authority on subject S. • Premises 2: Person A makes claim C about subject S. • Premises 3: Therefore, C is true.
Argument from Authority • Assessment • Standards • The person has sufficient expertise in the subject. • The claim is within the expert’s area of expertise. • There is an adequate degree of agreement among experts. • The expert is not significantly biased. • The area of expertise is a legitimate area or discipline. • The authority must be properly cited.
Logical Consistency(General) • Concepts & Method • Responding • Ethical Relativism, Subjectivism & Nihilism
Consistent Application (Normative) • Concepts, Assumptions & Method • Responding
Reversing the Situation(Ethics) • Method • Considerations • Responding
Argument by Definition (General) • Method • Assessing Definitions • Responding
Appeal to Intuition • Method • Responding
Appeal to Consequences(Normative) • Method • Moral Vs. Practical • Responding Step 1: Show that action, policy, etc. X creates Y harms and Z benefits. Step 2: Weigh and assess Y and Z. Step 3: Argue that moral assessment is based on the consequences of actions. Step 4A: If Y outweighs Z, then conclude that X is morally unacceptable. Step 4B: If Z outweighs Y, then conclude that X is morally acceptable.
Appeal to Rights (Ethics) • Method • Responding Method 1 Step 1: Argue for right Y. Step 2: Argue that. X violates (or does not violate) right Y. Step 3: Conclude that X is not morally acceptable (or is acceptable). Method 2 Step 1: Argue for right Y. Step 2: Argue that. X is required by right Y. Step 3: Conclude that X is morally obligatory.
Mixing Norms • Flawed Method • Flawed Step 1: X has status S in normative area Y. • Flawed Step 2: Therefore X should have the comparable status to S in normative area Z. • Correct Method • Step 1: X has status S in normative area Y. • Step 2: Premise or Argument connecting area Y and normative area Z. • Step 3: Therefore X should have the comparable status to S in normative area Z. • Making the Connection • Responding
Applying Aesthetic Principles • Method • Sample Principles • Responding • Art & Non-Art
Applying Aesthetic Theories • Method • Responding