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TRENDS AND PATTERNS IN (INTERNATIONAL) R&D ALLIANCES, 1970-2006 John Hagedoorn * Department of Organization & S PowerPoint Presentation
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TRENDS AND PATTERNS IN (INTERNATIONAL) R&D ALLIANCES, 1970-2006 John Hagedoorn * Department of Organization & S

TRENDS AND PATTERNS IN (INTERNATIONAL) R&D ALLIANCES, 1970-2006 John Hagedoorn * Department of Organization & S

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TRENDS AND PATTERNS IN (INTERNATIONAL) R&D ALLIANCES, 1970-2006 John Hagedoorn * Department of Organization & S

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  1. TRENDS AND PATTERNS IN (INTERNATIONAL) R&D ALLIANCES, 1970-2006 John Hagedoorn * Department of Organization & Strategy and UNU-MERIT School of Business and Economics Maastricht University

  2. Definition R&D alliances refer to cooperation between two or more firms, that remain independent economic agents and organizational entities, that share some of their R&D activities. As such they represent a part of the value chain in the ‘swollen middle’, in between market transactions and hierarchies.

  3. source : CATI

  4. source : CATI

  5. Advantages and disadvantages of equity alliances (joint ventures) and non-equity (contractual) alliances Advantages of equity alliances (joint ventures): • Solid organization (firm) • Intensive cooperation • Control and monitoring (governance) embedded in organization • Embedded transfer of tacit knowledge and knowledge accumulation • Long-term perspective Disadvantages of equity alliances: • Long and costly implementation process • High switching costs • Complex organization (two-tiered agency problems) • Inflexibility Advantages of non-equity (contractual) alliances: • Short implementation process • Low switching costs • Project-based • Flexibility • Short-term perspective Disadvantages of non-equity alliances: • Arm’s length control and monitoring (contracts) • Fragmented transfer of tacit knowledge and knowledge accumulation

  6. source : CATI

  7. Recent trends: • Growth of R&D alliances • Mainly found in high-tech industries • Growing importance of non-equity R&D alliances • Need for flexibility • Implications for inter-firm R&D networks: • flexible networks • complex networks

  8. Networks of inter-firm R&D alliances in bio-pharma, 1975-1979

  9. NNetworks of inter-firm R&D alliances bio-pharma, 1980-1984ch industry, 1985-1989

  10. Networks in the biotech industry, 1995-1999 Networks of inter-firm R&D alliances in bio-pharma, 1995-1999

  11. source : CATI

  12. source : CATI

  13. source : CATI

  14. source : CATI

  15. source : CATI

  16. source : CATI

  17. source : CATI

  18. So what have we learned? • Increase in R&D alliances • More flexible forms of R&D partnering • Concentrated in high-tech industries • Complex network configurations • Share of int. R&D alliances stable (+/- 60%) • Dominance of OECD countries • US has become the main player • Increasing role of NIC, recently China and India source : CATI

  19. Thank you for your attention source : CATI