sexual and gender identity disorders n.
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Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders

Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders

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Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders

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  1. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders “Sex, lies, and videotape”

  2. Gender Identity Disorder (GID): • People with GID identify themselves as a member of the opposite sex. • Differs from sexual orientation (preference for a partner of a specific sex). • A man may be attracted to other men (sexual orientation) without believing he is a woman (gender identity).

  3. People with GID: • are born one sex, but identify with the opposite sex. • don’t like same-sex clothing & activities; prefer opposite sex clothing, activities • are not persuaded by their physiology (breasts, penis) to identify with their biological sex. Will cross-dress to pass for a member of the opposite sex; may alter body to fit mental schema.

  4. GID often begins in early childhood: Children: cross-dress like opposite sex engage in opposite-sex play (boys-n-barbies; girls-n-trees) Prevalence: 6 times more frequent in boys than girls. • Most children with GID don’t grow up to be disordered in adulthood.

  5. Causes of GID • 1.    Hormones • Sex hormones taken during pregnancy may influence behavior of child. • Girls whose mothers took progestins-- (precursors to male hormones) engage in more rough & tumble play than their peers. • Boys whose mothers took estrogens--engage in less rough & tumble play than their male peers. There are no differences in hormones in adult males (heterosexual, homosexual, transsexual)

  6. 2. Environmental factors • *Its learned!! Boys reinforced for cross-dressing. • Parents noticing signs of GID-actually encourage GID behaviors. • *Attractiveness of child—matters • Boys with GID more attractive than control Ss. Girls with GID less attractive than control Ss.

  7. Therapy: • 1. Altering the Body •  Person undergoes 6-12 months of psychotherapy &  hormone treatment (promote breasts, facial hair) • May undergo reconstructive surgery (chin, implants, etc.) • Sex-reassignment surgery- (create artificial penis or vagina) • Lives life as a member of opposite sex

  8. 2. Altering the person’s mental state • Cognitive-behavioral therapy to get person with GID to associate with same sex.

  9. What are paraphilias? • a group of disorders involving sexual attraction to unusual objects or sexual activities that are unusual in nature. • DSM-IV diagnosis requires: • fantasies, urges, or behaviors must last at least 6 months & cause significant distress or impairment. • E.g., 50 % of men, report voyeuristic fantasies of peeping at unsuspecting naked women. • *Most people with paraphilias are male

  10. What is fetishism? • a reliance on an inanimate object for sexual arousal. • Fetish is recurrent & necessary for sexual arousal. Common fetishes: • Shoes • Stockings • rubber products • raincoats; gloves • fur garments • underwear

  11. What does person with fetish do? • Person may fondle, kiss, smell, suckle object while masturbating. • Partners may don fetish to stimulate arousal • Attraction felt toward object is uncontrollable & irresistible. • Onset during adolescence or earlier.

  12. What is transvestism? • Person is sexually aroused while cross-dressing. • Male still regards himself as a male. Is usually heterosexual & family oriented. • Man will wear women’s underwear or full clothing (often in secret). • Onset- early adolescence.

  13. Pedophilia • DSM-IV diagnosis: • Adults who derive sexual gratification through physical & often sexual contact with prepubertal children unrelated to them. • Offender must be at least 16 yrs old & 5 yrs older than child. • Occurs mostly in men; comorbid with mood & anxiety disorders.

  14. What is incest? • Sexual relations between close relatives for whom marriage is forbidden. • Most common form: brother/sister. • Egyptian pharaohs. • Factors: • *Patriarchal structure in families. •  *parents in families neglectful of children •  *mother may be absent or disabled

  15. Incest-A subtype of pedophilia • Two distinctions: • 1. Incest – by definition occurs between members of the same family. •  2. Incest victims tend to be older than victims of a pedophile’s desires.

  16. What is voyeurism? • sexual gratification is obtained by watching others undress or have sexual relations. • Voyeurs like the element of risk involved with possibly getting caught. May masturbate while watching others. • Voyeurism typically begins in adolescence, voyeur usually fears direct contact with others.

  17. What is exhibitionism? • derives pleasure by exposing oneself to others. • Will masturbate either during exposure or shortly after. • The goal is to shock others. • Urge to expose oneself is overwhelming & virtually uncontrollable.

  18. What is frotteurism? • involves deriving pleasure from touching an unsuspecting person. • May rub penis against woman’s thighs, may fondle breasts or genitals. Typically occurs in crowded public places.