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Introduction to Operations Management

Introduction to Operations Management

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Introduction to Operations Management

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  1. DAVIS AQUILANO CHASE PowerPointPresentation by Charlie Cook Introduction to Operations Management F O U R T H E D I T I O N chapter 1 © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003

  2. Chapter Objectives • Introduce and define operations management (OM) in terms of its contribution and the activities it involves. • Describe how operations contributes to the overall betterment of society. • Present operations as a function that addresses issues in both manufacturing and services. • Show how operations management is gaining more recognition both internally and externally to an organization. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  3. Chapter Objectives (cont’d) • Demonstrate how the operations management function interacts with the other functional areas within an organization. • Present a brief history of operations management as a field and its evolution to its current role in an organization. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  4. Managerial Issues • Shift in balance of power to consumers • Globalization of business and markets • E-commerce • Achieving higher levels of productivity • Creating higher quality products • Delivering better customer service • Achieving shorter delivery times • Reducing labor and material costs Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  5. What Is Operations Management? • Operations Management • Management of the conversion process which transforms inputs such as raw material and labor into outputs in the form of finished goods and services. Inputs (customersand/or materials) Transformation Process(components) Outputs(goodsandservices) Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  6. Role of OM within an Organization Exhibit 1.1 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  7. Top-down Approach to OM Strategy • Operations Strategy Decisions • Strategic (long-range) • Needs of customers(capacity planning) • Tactical (medium-range) • Efficient scheduling of resources • Operational planning and control (short-range) • Immediate tasks and activities Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  8. An Operational-Level OM Perspective • OM’s function focuses on adding value through the transformation process (technical core) of converting inputs into outputs. • Physical: manufacturing • Locational: transportation • Exchange:retailing • Storage: warehousing • Physiological: health care • Informational: telecommunications Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  9. The Transformation Process within OM Exhibit 1.2 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  10. Input-Transformation-OutputRelationships for Typical Systems Exhibit 1.3 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  11. OM’s Contributions to Society • Higher Standard of Living • Ability to increase productivity • Lower cost of goods and services • Better Quality Goods and Services • Competition increases quality • Concern for the Environment • Recycling and concern for air and water quality • Improved Working Conditions • Better job design and employee participation Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  12. Annual Change in Productivity in the United States (1980-2000) Source: Economic Report of the President, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. January, 2001. Exhibit 1.4 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  13. Services as a Percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for Different Countries Source: The World Factbook 2000, Central Intelligence Agency, Washington, DC. Exhibit 1.5 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  14. The Emergence of OM • Application of OM to Service Operations • Batch cooking operations at McDonald’s • Just-in-Time (JIT) at Northern Telecomm, Inc. • Automatic inventory replenishment at Wal-Mart Service Good Product Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  15. Growth in Services in the United States Exhibit 1.6 Source: Handbook of U.S. Labor Statistics, edited by Eva E. Jacobs, Fifth Edition, Bernan Press, 2001, Table 2-1, pp. 161–164. 1-6 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  16. Goods Tangible Can be inventoried No interaction between customer and process Services Intangible Cannot be inventoried Direct interaction between customer and process Differences Between Goods and Services Exhibit 1.7 1-6 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  17. Most Products Are a “Bundle” of Goods and Services Exhibit 1.8 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  18. Quality An Expanded Definition of Quality • Quality is important in all functional areas of an organization. • Quality is now much more than the technical requirements for manufactured goods. • Service quality (customer relationships) is equally important. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  19. A New Paradigm for OM • Post-War U.S. Dominance in Manufacturing • Available capacity built to support the war effort • Pent-up demand for consumer goods • Destruction of overseas production capabilities • Proactive Operations Function (Skinner) • Add value to products, increase profit margins. • Compete on dimensions other than costs: • Quality • Speed of delivery • Process flexibility Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  20. The Ever-Changing World of OM • Increased Global Competition • Transformation into a global economy • Pressure to excel on multiple competitive dimensions • Increased emphasis on logistics • Advances in Technology • Information technology (IT) • Internet email and commerce (B2B) • Automation and robotics Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  21. Ford’s Global Network to Supportthe Manufacturing of the Escort Exhibit 1.9 Source: From Joseph E. Stiglitz, Principles of Micro-economics, 2nd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1997), p. 58. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  22. Linking OM to Customers and Suppliers • Benefits of Buffering the Transformation Process • The process was not disturbed by environmental interaction. • The process was often more efficient than input and distribution processes. • Productivity was maximized when processes operated at continuous rates. • Process management skills were different from those of other functional activities. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  23. Linking OM to Customers and Suppliers • Disadvantages of Buffering the Transformation Process • Information lag in interaction with other functional activities. • Lack of communication between customers and the shop floor for problem solving. • Value Chain • Steps an organization requires to produce a good or a service regardless of where they are performed. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  24. The Value Chain and Its Support Functions Exhibit 1.10 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  25. Line and Staff Jobs in OM Exhibit 1.11 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  26. Inputs Provided by OM toOther Functional Areas Exhibit 1.12 Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  27. Historical Development of OM • Prior to 1900 • Cottage industry produced custom-made goods. • Watt’s steam engine in 1785. • Whitney’s standardized gun parts in 1801. • Industrial Revolution began at mid-century. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  28. Historical Development of OM (cont.) • Scientific Management (Frederick W. Taylor) • Systematic approach to increasing worker productivity through time study, standardization of work, and incentives. • Viewed workers as an interchangeable asset. • Other Management Pioneers • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth • Motion study and industrial psychology • Henry L. Gantt • Scheduling and the Gantt chart Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  29. Historical Development of OM (cont.) • Moving Assembly Line (1913) • Labor specialization reduced assembly time. • Hawthorne Studies • Yielded unexpected results in the productivity of Western Electric plant workers after changes in their production environment. • Led to recognition of the importance of work design and employee motivation. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  30. Historical Development of OM (cont.) • Operations Research (Management Science) • Outgrowth of WWII needs for logistics control and weapons-systems design. • Seeks to obtain mathematically optimal (quantitative) solutions to complex problems. • OM Emerges as a Field • 1950–1960, OM moved beyond industrial engineering and operations research to the view of the production operation as a system. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  31. Historical Development of OM (cont.) • OM Emerges as a Field • 1950–1960, OM moved beyond industrial engineering and operations research to the view of the production operation as a system. • The Marriage of OM and IT • Integrated solutions approaches • Business process reengineering • Supply chain management • Systems integration (SAP) Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e

  32. Historical Development of OM (cont.) • Operations Management in Services • OM concepts can apply to both manufacturing and service operations. • Integration of Manufacturing and Services • Conducting world class operations requires compatible manufacturing and service operations. Fundamentals of Operations Management 4e