Gravitational Wave Physics • Programme: • - new initiative - • Group composition (current): • 3 staff, 0 postdoc, 2 PhD • Investment Budget: • under discussion Jo van den Brand First science run: May – September 2007
1ST GENERATION IS CLOSE TO REACHING THESENSITIVITY TO DETECT A NS-NS COALESCENCE AS FAR AS VIRGO CLUSTER (17MPc) Credit: M.Lorenzini Virgo: 1st generation detector BUT THE EVENT RATEIS TOO LOW !! EXPECTED EVENT RATE: 0.01-0.1 ev/yr (BNS) FIRST DETECTION: POSSIBLE BUT NOT PROBABLE
Enhanced LIGO ~2009 LIGO today 100 million light years Advanced LIGO ~2014 Credit: R.Powell, B.Berger From discovery to astronomy • Nikhef contributions to Virgo+ : • New Automatic Alignment electronics • Thermal compensation simulations • Input Mode Cleaner optics 1 ev/week – 1 ev/day expected
Creation of Adam - Michelangelo FP7: 3rd generation baseline concept • Underground detector • Mirrors at cryogenic temperature • Longer arms, new geometry E.T. -Einstein gravitational-wave Telescope • Design Study Proposal submitted to EU within FP7 • Large part of the European GW community involved (EGO, INFN, MPI, CNRS, NIKHEF, Univ. Birmingham, Cardiff, Glasgow) • Recommended in Aspera / Appec roadmap Credit: H.Lück
GRB050509B 1ST GENERATION 2ND GENERATION 3RD GENERATION INTERFEROMETER NS - NS INSPIRAL RANGE Credit G.Cagnoli
LOI to ESA – LISA analysis Nikhef, VU, RUN and SRON Netherlands: Bulten/Nelemans Virgo
Beyond Einstein is the umbrella program for a series of NASA/ESA missions linked by powerful new technologies and common science goals to answer the questions: • What powered the Big Bang? • What happens at the edge of a Black Hole? • What is the mysterious Dark Energy pulling the Universe apart? Gravitational Waves Can Escape from Earliest Moments of the Big Bang Inflation (Big Bang plus 10-34 Seconds) We do not know what 95% of the universe is made of! light Chandra - Each point of x-ray light is a Black Hole! Big Bang plus 300,000 Years Now Is Einstein’s theory still right in these conditions of extreme gravity? Or is new physics awaiting us? gravitational waves Big Bang plus 14 Billion Years Dark energy and matter interact through gravity September 6, 2007: Committee on NASA's Einstein Program: AnArchitecture for Implementation, National ResearchCouncil Finding 4. LISA is an extraordinarily original and technically bold mission concept. LISA will openup an entirely new way of observing the universe, with immense potential to enlarge ourunderstanding of physics and astronomy in unforeseen ways. LISA, in the committee’s view,should be the flagship mission of a long-term program addressing Beyond Einstein goals. Finding 8. The present NASA Beyond Einstein funding wedge alone is inadequate to develop anycandidate Beyond Einstein mission on its nominal schedule. However, both JDEM and LISA couldbe carried out with the currently forecasted NASA contribution if DOE's contribution that benefitsJDEM is taken into account and if LISA's development schedule is extended and funding from ESAis assumed.
Summary • Gravitational wave physics • Component of our Astroparticle Physics initiative • Exciting new physics program • Important questions are addressed • Program with a long-term scientific perspective • VIRGO • Sensitivity is improving fast • First science run underway • MOU on data sharing between LIGO and Virgo • NIKHEF commitment • Modest at this moment • Expand to FOM research program in future
Recommendation 1. NASA and DOE should proceed immediately with a competition to select a Joint Dark Energy Mission for a 2009 new start. The broad mission goals in the Request for Proposal should be (1) to determine the properties of dark energy with high precision and (2) to enable a broad range of astronomical investigations. The committee encourages the Agencies to seek as wide a variety of mission concepts and partnerships as possible. Recommendation 2. NASA should invest additional Beyond Einstein funds in LISA technology development and risk reduction, to help ensure that the Agency is in a position to proceed in partnership with ESA to a new start after the LISA Pathfinder results are understood. Recommendation 3. NASA should move forward with appropriate measures to increase the readiness of the three remaining mission areas—Black Hole Finder Probe, Constellation-X, and Inflation Probe—for consideration by NASA and the NRC Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics.