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Doctors, Medical Professors and Students in Belgium during WWII: the connection of anti-Semitism and anti-Masonry versus the Resistance dr. Yves Louis (pediatrician – Secretary-General of the Belgian Association of Medical Trade Unions BVAS) Marc Verschooris (lecturer Hogeschool Gent).
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Doctors, Medical Professors and Students in Belgium during WWII: the connection of anti-Semitism and anti-Masonry versus the Resistancedr. Yves Louis (pediatrician – Secretary-General of the Belgian Association of Medical Trade Unions BVAS)Marc Verschooris (lecturer Hogeschool Gent)
Anti-Semitism and Anti-Masonry • Between two WW and even before • Belgiumstrong influence on extreme right wing movementsanti-Dreyfusards + French Pétainistes
Eugenism - Racism • Well spread even in scientific surroundingsfirst insidious then in a more aggressive way
Doctors • France: triumvirateCéline (docteur Destouches)Alexis CarrelGeorge Montandon (eugenist) Brussels 1938, May 3rd • Belgium: doctors (right wing) + strong conservative and catholic attitude
Doctors - Belgium • University of Ghent: professors – doctors in collaborationExclusion of Prof. Handovksy: involvement of Heymans (Nobel Prize) & Daels • Rex Movement: Ouwerxonly target: attack Jews and FreemasonsJewish-Masonic ConspiracyWartime Order of Medicine Germans prefer Frans Van Hoof (anti-Semite)
Anti in several ways • Anti-Masonry • Anti-Semitism • Anti-Communism • Anti-Socialism • Anti-Psychanalysissupposed to be Jewish so can also harm the family
Ouwerx • Anti-Freemasonry led by Ouwerx → Epuration – Bezem • Cagoulards (Hiding Hood) → list of presumed Freemasons (1939)will be published in La Libre Belgique and Le Pays Réel
Ouwerx • 1940: another booklet(Précurseurs = preceding) • Already before WWII he had published Trois Impostures: the Imianitoff Affairthe Freemasonry andthe Influence of Communism in Medicine
Doctor Imianitoff Frédéric Imianitoff → Jewish + Freemason origin→ Bachelor in Medicine (England)→ Founder of preventive medicine → Secretary General of Belgian Preventive Medicine and Eugenism→ with Rene Sand considered as founder of Social Medicine
René Sand • Sand 1877-1953 • 1900: doctor (ULB) • 1919: involved in development of social medicine • 1936: Secretary-General of Public Health • Imianitoff & Sand chased as Freemasons
The Imianitoff Scandal • In 1937 scandal will burst outPaul de Mont (Rex)Edmond van Dieren (VNV) • 1938-1939 more opponents e.g. Daels (Ghent) • 1939: 6 months prison for falsifying not for practising medicine
Result of Imianitoff Affair • All the hate is gathered in the Affair, all contradictions, all antagonisms of that moment • Prof. Jacques De Busscher (Psychiatry, Ghent) and Freemason (Septentrion)
The Ambivalence • Preventive Medecine • The Eugenism • The Corporatism
Preventive Medicine • The Preventive Medicine of Imianitoff & Sandconsidered als Communist and Collectivisteven Jewish-Communist Conspiracy • Nazi-Germany + France of Pétain inspire Alexis Carrel to introduce an hygienistic and preventive medicinewill led to extermination • Note: preventive medicine is always depending on political regime
Eugenism • Positive eugenism = preventive medicine • Negative eugenism = sterilisation, euthanasia…The Nazi-eugenism was ready to kill → T4
Corporatism • The Corporatism introduced by Ouwerx was a fascist Order and the opposite of↕ • Democratic Doctor’s Syndicates
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion • Ouwerx refers to the Protocols but also to the Bern Trial (1935) where Nazi’s try to prove the authenticityIn 1935, Russia is not a great help remembering the falsifier Mathieu Golovinski who had left the Okhrana, the Tsarist Secret Police and the country.
Ghent University • Political « Guard » of the University- Historian Franz Petri (Kriegsverwaltungsrat)- form a new German intellectual centre→ political centre of collaboration→ referring to von Bissing-University- Volksforschung/Germanenkunde→ only possible in Ghent (Petri)→ urgent call for German guest professors
Ghent Faculty of Medicine • Situation 1940- Frans Daels ↔ Toulouse professors- Daels & Speleers terrorize Faculty → opposition Francophone profs (Hautes Etudes) • Leonardo Conti- Reichsgesundheitsführer- June 23, 1941: invitation by Faculty of Medicine → Daels & Speleers: meeting in Marburg
Leonardo Conti(1900-1945) Member SA (1923) en SS (1933) – anti-Semite Leader of the National Socialist German Doctors’ League (NSDAP) Leader of Main Office for the Public Health during Third Reich T-4 Euthanasia Program
Public Hospital: De Bijloke Ghent De Bijloke Gent
University of Brussels (ULB) • Strong liberal-socialist character since 1834 • 1940: can continue after replacing 75 radical professors by reliable Flemish colleagues • Flemish activists Flemish students at ULB • Faculty of Medicine great loss = anti-Jewish
University of Brussels (ULB) • 4 German-minded profs force closing of university on Nov. 25th, 1941 Antoon Jacob: sentenced to death in 1919 • 300 teaching personal + 3600 students • Closed officially by Reeder on August 13th, 1942
University of Leuven • Total Belgian students at University: 12.000 • 1941: 583 students from the ULB
Conclusion • Anti-Semitism and Anti-Masonry existed long before WWII
Conclusion 2: Nobel Prizes • Hitler saw himself as the political Robert Koch (Nobel Prize 1905 - who discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis): Judaism was a Mycobacterium of social decomposition (July 1941) • 1913: Nobel Prize Richet (La Sélection Humaine) elimination of disabled scandal • 1935: A. Carrell (Nobel Prize 1912) – L’homme cet inconnu world success till the fifties...
Conclusion 3: Thirties • The eugenetic vision: the world can be seen as a human body, difficult to heal what makes that there’s one struggle, one revolt: one of a pathological order • The ennemy is no longer an antagonist as in the classic conflict. Now it’s an animal, a Mycobacterium. It’s something that should be eliminated by all means.