Campaigns American use becomes viable in the 1970s; used by government from early 20th Century
Campaigns • A campaign is an organized strategy using communication to affect change. • Social advertising—the use of advertising media for a social purpose. • PSAs • Induce behavioral change of a more profound nature than the choice of a specific brand of a packaged good that the advertiser seeks.
Characteristics of Campaigns • Often coordinate effects across different media and interpersonal channels. • Often result from conflicts between competing groups or organizations. • Salmon—campaigns occur when an organization perceives a threat to interests or values to which it is committed. • Goals range from incremental changes to dramatic steps that appear revolutionary.
More Characteristics • Paisley—reform—actions to make society or the lives of people better—is a unifying principle of public communication campaigns. • US—goes through specific steps to solve social problems • first, engineering and new technologies • second, persuasion • finally, coercion (laws/i.e. seat belts)
Media Role • Coverage of one aspect prompts discovery of other issues • Response to the stories create a cycle of coverage which elevates public concern • Media perform accelerating/decelerating role in social movement; rarely seen as initiators • Media coverage of social movements is part of a process of social control and conflict management
Campaign Structures • Paisley • 5 key concepts • objectives (what) • strategies of change (how) • benefits (who) • entitlements (who is asking for change) • stakeholders (what groups/subcultures)
Other Structures • Rice and Atkin (p.69) • Devine and Hirt • add interpersonal dimension • message-based model w/out interpersonal • behaviorally-based model w/interpersonal
Hierarchy of Effects Theory • McGuire—a particular step in one’s processing of a message relies on outcomes of prior steps. • Three sequences: • low involvement—occurs when consumer not concerned/buying products • high involvement—occurs when consumer is concerned/must learn and then adapt behavior • third sequence—action first, then awareness and attitude
Other Persuasion Theories • Social Learning Theory • modeling behavior • Theory of Reasoned Action one’s beliefs, attitudes about influential others • Exchange Theory • fair and useful activity to engage in
Campaign Topics in U.S. • Health and risky behaviors • smoking/condoms • Public safety/law and order • designated driver/seat belts • economic and national development • developing countries/diffusion of innovation
Targets • The explicit goals of all these topics are: 1)to change people’s cognitions • 2)as well as their feelings • 3)and to encourage certain behaviors • Sometimes it works; other cases it has opposite effect—designated driver/seat belts
Hornik • Offers five explanations why campaigns make not result in overt behavioral change: • 1)community characteristics (economics; development)—KY cigarettes • 2)individual characteristics (busy lifestyle) • 3)community social influences (again, KY) • 4)learned individual characteristics (no problem solving skills) • 5)enduring individual characteristics (personality, aggressiveness)
Channel Effectiveness • In general, many campaigns use only one medium; those campaigns that use a variety of channels/media are usually more successful. • Those that add interpersonal channels are even more successful and those who add interpersonal channels with organized messages are the most successful.—Rice and Atkin
Entertainment Channels • Television—especially commercial • Music videos • Soap Operas • Rock music/popular music