Epidemiology 1.1 What is an outbreak?
What is an outbreak? • Epidemic: the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness or other similar event clearly in excess of what is normally expected. The characteristics of the illness, the area and the season all have to be taken into account. • Public health officials use the term outbreak=used synonymously with epidemic but actually refers to an epidemic confined to a localized area.
Questions on epidemics? • What disease/condition is present in excess? • What is causing the outbreak? • What is the source? • What is the mode of transmission? • Who is ill? • Where do they live? • When did they become ill? • Why did they become ill?
Endemics: refers to the ongoing,usual,or constant presence of a disease in a community or among a group of people; • A disease is said to be endemic when it continually prevails in a region. • Pandemic: is a epidemic affecting or attacking the population of an extensive region,country,or continent.
Channels of communication in case of an outbreak of a disease in Namibia. • Health Facility:PMO • MIS(Manager of information system) • Regional CMO • Regional Director • National Level:Epidemiology division • PS • Minister • WHO Representative
Channels of communication in case of an suspect(confirmed) • NIP • National Level: Epidemiology division • CMO • MIS/Regional Director • PMO • District(PHC) • Health Facility ( In-charge)
Involvement of the community health nurse in disease outbreak response. 1.Review surveillance data for trends that cause a concern for the public health. 2.Ensure supervisors in all health facilities in the district know and use protocols for recommended case management of priority disease and conditions.
Involvement of the community health nurse in disease outbreak response cont. 3.Review and update supplies and resources for epidemic response of priority diseases including: -Presence of trained staff -Treatment, equipment and supplies -Resources for transportation and communication -Supplies for collecting and shipping specimens for confirmation -Supplies for giving vaccinations.
Involvement of the community health nurse in disease outbreak response. 4.Procedure for procuring stocks of vaccine in an emergency and conducting a prompt vaccine response to an emergency. -Check emergency stock of supplies periodically(for example monthly) to make sure they are dry,clean and ready for use. -Make sure that steps for obtaining laboratory confirmation are known by the appropriate staff.