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Z 519: Information Analytics

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  1. Z519: Information Analytics Introduction Evaluation of Information System

  2. What is an Information System? • A set of hardware, software, data, procedural, and human components that work together to generate, collect, store, retrieve, process, analyze, and/or distribute information.– William S. Davis (1994). Business systems analysis and design. Wadsworth: Belmont, CA • An integrated set of components for collecting, storing, processing, and communicating information – Britannica • A system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in an organization, and it includes the organization’s manual and automated processes. -- Wikipedia

  3. Why IS? • IS - our daily life • Business firms • Organizations • Schools • Individuals • We rely on IS: • Manage operations (process financial accounts) • Compete in the marketplace (automate information processing) • Supply services (governmental services to citizens) • Augment personal lives (study, shop, bank and invest)

  4. History • The first large-scale mechanized information system – Herman Hollerith’s census tabulator (to process the 1890 US Census)

  5. History • Left to right: The circuit-closing press ("card reader"); diagram of press; hand insertion of card into a sorter compartment that opened automatically based on the values punched into the card; tallying the day's results. "Each completed circuit caused an electromagnet to advance a counting dial by one number. The tabulator's 40 dials allowed the answers to several questions to be counted simultaneously. At the end of the day, the total on each dial was recorded by hand and the dial set back to zero

  6. History • UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) • one of the first computers used for information processing • Used to process US Census in 1951

  7. History • Personal Computers (PC) • Available to small business and individuals in 1970s • Around 1Billion PC has been sold since mid-1970s

  8. Evolution of Cell Phones • http://blog.mylookout.com/mobile-phone-evolution/

  9. History • The World Wide Web ("WWW" or simply the "Web") is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents that runs over the Internet. With a Web browser, a user views Web pages that may contain text, images, and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks. - wikipedia • The Web was created around 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau working at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. • As its inventor, Berners-Lee conceived the Web to be the Semantic Web where all its contents should be descriptively marked-up.

  10. WWW: Basic Ideas • Hypertext/hyperlink: • Resource Identifiers • unique identifiers used to locate a particular resource (computer file, document or other resource) on the network • URI (Uniform Resource Identifier)/URL (Uniform Resource Locator): http or ftp • http://somehost/absolute/URI/with/absolute/path/to/resource.txt • ftp://somehost/resource.txt • Markup language: • characters or codes embedded in text which indicate structure, semantic meaning, or advice on presentation

  11. WWW – Web 1.0

  12. The current (syntactic / structural) Web

  13. Was the Web meant to be more?

  14. Social Web – Web 2.0 • The term Web 2.0 was made popular by Tim O’Reilly: • http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0 • “Web 2.0 … has … come to refer to what some people describe as a second phase of architecture and application development for the World Wide Web.” • The Web where “ordinary” users can meet, collaborate, and share using social software applications on the Web (tagged content, social bookmarking, AJAX, etc.) • Popular examples include: • Bebo, del.icio.us, digg, Flickr, Google Maps, Skype, Technorati, orkut, 43 Things, Wikipedia…

  15. Features / principles of Web 2.0 • http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html • The Web as platform • Harnessing collective intelligence • Data is the next “Intel Inside” • End of the software release cycle • Lightweight programming models • Software above the level of a single device • Rich user experiences

  16. Semantic Web – Web 3.0 • Tim Berners-Lee has a vision of a Semantic Web which • has machine-understandable semantics of information, and • millions of small specialized reasoning services that provide support in automated task achievement based on the accessible information

  17. What is the Semantic Web? • “An extension of the current Web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.” • Sir Tim Berners-Lee et al., Scientific American, 2001: tinyurl.com/i59p • “…allowing the Web to reach its full potential…” with far-reaching consequences • “The next generation of the Web”

  18. Metadata and Semantics

  19. Semantic Web - Language tower

  20. What is Semantic Web for? • Searching - Providing better communication between human and computers by adding machine-processable semantics to data. • Integrating - trying to solve the problem of data and service integration

  21. Linked Open Data S519

  22. From Web 1.0 to Web 3.0

  23. Big Data • Data Scientists • Data Analytics • Citizen Data Scientists • Is data science for computer or data science for human? • http://www.kdnuggets.com/