Issues in Biotechnology: The Way We Work With Life Dr. Albert P. Kausch lifeedu.org OnCampus Live BCH 190, MIC 190, AFS 190, NRS 190, PLS 190 OnLine BCH 190 A Sweeping General Survey on Life and Biotechnology A Public Access College Course The University of Rhode Island Issues in Biotechnology: Biotechnology, Our Society and Our Future
Issues in Biotechnology: The Way We Work With Life Dr. Albert Kausch Kimberly Nelson BCH 190 Section I. The Mechanics of DNA: What is Life? Section II. The Applications of Biotechnology A Sweeping General Survey on Life and Biotechnology A Public Access College Course The University of Rhode Island lifeedu.org
Issues in Biotechnology: The Way We Work With Life Dr. Albert P. Kausch lifeedu.org The Mechanics of DNA: What is Life? 3.Atoms, Cells and Flow of Life 4. Some Techniques in Biotechnology A Sweeping General Survey on Life and Biotechnology The University of Rhode Island The Flow of Life & The Techniques in Biotechnology Lectures 3&4
Issues in Biotechnology: The Way We Work With Life Dr. Albert P. Kausch lifeedu.org The Mechanics of DNA: What is Life? 4. Some Techniques in Biotechnology A Sweeping General Survey on Life and Biotechnology The University of Rhode Island The Techniques in Biotechnology Lecture 4
Proteins Are Used to Copy DNA DNA does not replicate spontaneously, but is facilitated by a group of proteins. Interestingly, each of these proteins is coded for in DNA they also replicate.
Enzymes were discovered that cut DNA at specific sequences And subsequently, enzymes were discovered that paste DNA together. The ability to cut and paste DNA allowed gene cloning.
Plasmids are circular pieces of DNA found in some bacteria • Many copies per cell • Antibiotic resistance gene • Plasmids can be cut and pasted back together • Foreign genes can be inserted
How is a gene cloned? Foreign DNA (gene) is inserted into a plasmid that has a gene for antibiotic resistance The plasmid is introduced into a bacterial cell and grown on the antibiotic Only bacteria with the plasmid grow…the inserted gene is copied many times.
Gene Construction Promoter Coding Sequence Terminator Protein coding sequence Cell specificity Developmental specificity Start transcription Stop transcription Message stability Gene constructs can be moved into plants and the gene is expressed driven by the promoter sequence
It is now possible to clone any gene from any organism and move it into any other organism
Tools and Techniques used in Biotechnology
The ultracentrifuge is a centrifuge optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds, capable of generating acceleration as high as 2,000,000 G (approx 19 600 km/s²). Ultracentrifuges find important uses in molecular biology, biochemistry and polymer science, including separation of cellular structures and molecules
Tools of the Trade The eppendorf tube and the pipetman are the standard stock and trade in the daily work of a molecular biologist
Innovative technologies become biotech products “Eppendorf tubes And Pipetteman For the Gold Rush”
A child came to me and said ‘What is the grass?’ fetching it to me with full hands; how could I answer the child? I do not know what it is any more than he. Whitman
20. A Pipetman is: (A) the new biomedical device made by tissue engineering and now used to treat the damaged blood vessels of heart attack victims (B) a radical group of bioengineered superheroes in the Hollywood movie GATTACCA (C) a molecular biology tool used in the lab to measure small volumes of liquid common in biotechnology (D) a new type of bio-engineered crop plants that are drought tolerant (E) a new surgical tool used in to extract cancer cells
21. An ultracentrifuge consists of a rotor that spins tubes containing materials and is: (A) a component on a new type of microscope to allow cell components to be easily visualized (B) the laboratory tool developed by Robert Hooke in the 1660s that he used to discover cells (C) a tool used by cell biologists for separating and comparing cell components based on size and density (D) a component on the recent Rover Mars mission used to look for life on other planets (E) used only to enrich uranium for nuclear warheads
22. Cloning a gene (A) is a method that has been banned in Europe but widely used in the US (B) is a method used to copy a specific segment of DNA (C) is a method used to reproduce an entire new organism from a donor cell, like (D) is a science fiction idea that has not yet been accomplished or proven (E) is a good idea in theory, but has not yet been accomplished
23. The atomic number of carbon is 6. Its nucleus must contain: (A) 6 neutrons and 6 protons. (B) 3 protons and 3 neutrons. (C) 6 neutrons and no electrons. (D) 6 protons and no electrons. (E) 6 protons and 6 electrons
24. A covalent bond is formed when: (A) two non-polar molecules associate with each other in a polar environment. (B) a positively charged particle is attracted to a negatively charged particle. (C) one atom gives up electrons to another atom. (D) two atoms share electrons. (E) two polar molecules associate with each other in a non- polar environment.
25. Enzymes are usually: (A) proteins (B) carbohydrates (C) helpful bacteria (D) Only available in health food stores (E) none of these answers are correct
26. Changing one amino acid within a protein could change what about that protein? (A) the primary structure of the protein (B) the overall shape of the protein (C) the function of the protein itself (D) the sequence of amino acids specified in the DNA sequence called a gene (E) all of the above
27. A shortage of phosphorus would make it difficult for an organism to manufacture (A) DNA (B) proteins (C) cellulose (D) fats (E) none of these answers are correct
28. Which of the following is not a chemical reaction? (A) Sugar and oxygen combine to form carbon dioxide and water (B) sodium metal and chlorine gas unite to form sodium chloride (C) hydrogen gas combines with oxygen to form water (D) Ice melts to form liquid water (E) none of these answers are correct
29. The chemical units of information in DNA are: (A) ATGC (B) UAGC (C) DAMN (D) RNAI (E) XYZQ
30. In DNA replication an (A) adenine always pairs with (A) cytosine (C) (B) thymidine (T) (C) guanine (G) (D) tyrosine (E) monosodium glutamate
31. Observation of and wonder at the workings of nature are what initiate “why” and “how” type questions. Science is a system of: (A) relying on one’s best intuition, inspiration and perspiration to solve problems (B) advertising as a devious enterprise conceived by entrepreneurial western capitalists to make money from the ideas of inventive and often eccentric minds (C) making theories that fit certain beliefs about why and how things happen (D) hypothesis making about the mysteries of life (E) hypothesis making and testing to discern and validate observable facts
32. Water can absorb and store a large amount of heat while increasing only a few degrees in temperature. Why? (A) The heat must first be used to break the hydrogen bonds rather than raise the temperature. (B) The heat must first be used to break the ionic bonds rather than raise the temperature. (C) The heat must first be used to break the covalent bonds rather than raise the temperature. (D) An increase in temperature causes an increase in adhesion of the water. (E) An increase in temperature causes an increase in cohesion of the water.
33. Water is split during photosynthesis is plants to yield what to compounds? (A) methane gas and carbon dioxide (B) oxygen and water (C) hydrogen and oxygen. (D) sugars and proteins (E) RNA and DNA