interaksi ekologis agroekosistem n.
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  1. BahanKajiandalam MK. ManajemenAgroekosistem INTERAKSI EKOLOGISAGROEKOSISTEM Diabstraksikanoleh: soemarnojurstanahfpub - Nop. 2013

  2. AGROEKOLOGI. Agroecologi adalah kajian tentang proses-proses ekologis yang berlangsung dalam sistem produksi pertanian. The prefix agro- refers to agriculture. Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered. Pakar Agroecologi mengkaji berbagai macam agroecosystems, dan bidang agroekologi berkaitan dnegan semua metode pertanian, yaitu pertanian organik, terpadu, konvensional, intensif dan ekstensif. Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  3. AGROEKOLOGI. How do Plants Grow? Several factors influence (enhance, reduce or limit) plant growth. These factors are either environmental factors (external factors) or plant factors (internal factors). Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  4. AGROEKOLOGI. Agroecology diartikan sebagai “kajian tentang interaksi antara tanaman, ternak, manusia dan lingkungannya di dalam sistem pertanian". Agroecology as a discipline therefore covers integrative studies within agronomy, ecology, sociology and economics . The classical, scientific disciplines, where some are within the window of agroecology, are lined up in the right column, ordered in a hierarchy with the ‘hard agroecology’ disciplines at the bottom and the 'soft agroecology' disciplines at the top . Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  5. . AGROECOLOGY AS A SCIENCE, A MOVEMENT AND A PRACTICE. A REVIEW A. Wezel, S. Bellon, T. Doré, C. Francis, D. Vallod and C. David. Agron. Sustain. Dev. Vol. 29, No. 4, Oct-Dec 2009 Agroecologysebagaipraktekpertanianmuncul-berkembangpada 1980-an, danseringkalidikaitkandengangerakan “pertanianekologis”. The scales and dimensions of agroecological investigations changed over the past 80 years from the plot and field scales to the farm and agroecosystem scales. Adatigapendekatan, yaitu: Investigasipadapetakanlahandansekalalapangan, Investigasipadatingkatagroecosystemdansekalausahatani, Investigasi yang mencakupkeseluruhansistempangan. AGROEKOLOGI Disiplin Ilmu Gerakan Praktikal Pendekatan Petakan/ Hamparan Environmentalisme Teknologi Pertanian Pertanian berkelanjutan Agro-ekosistem Pengembangan Wilayah Pedesaan Ekologi Pangan Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  6. AGROEKOSISTEM Agroecosystem didefinisikan sebagai “unit aktivitas pertanian” secara spatial dan fungsional, dan meliputi komponen biotik (hidup) dan benda mati (abiotik) yang saling berinteraksi.. The core of an agroecosystem lies the human activity of agriculture. However, an agroecosystem is not restricted to the immediate site of agricultural activity (e.g. the farm), but rather includes the region that is impacted by this activity, usually by changes to the complexity of species assemblages and energy flows, as well as to the net nutrient balance. Traditionally an agroecosystem, particularly one managed intensively, is characterized as having a simpler species composition and simpler energy and nutrient flows than "natural" ecosystem. Agroecosystems are often associated with elevated nutrient input, much of which exits the farm leading to eutrophication of connected ecosystems not directly engaged in agriculture. Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  7. AGRO-EKOSISTEM Complex nature of an agriculture system, illustrated by the C-N cycle. Mikroba BOT : Bahan Organik Tanah Penyerapan air (H2O) Pupuk Pencucian Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  8. AGROEKOSISTEM - USAHA PERTANIAN Ortega & Miller-Soybean Comparison Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  9. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS Interaksi-interaksipadatingkatusahatani: Output darisuatuaktivitasdigunakansebagai input untukaktivitaslainnya. The use of crop straw or “residues” for animal feed. A typical consequence is the rejection by farmers of short-straw varieties of cereals such as rice and sorghum, due to the reduced biomass and the lower palatability to livestock of dwarf rice varieties (which have high levels of silica in the stem). The use of livestock manure as fertilizer in crop fields (when alternative sources of fertility maintenance might be needed as grazing land decreases and/or mechanization is introduced). Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  10. INTERAKSI DI ANTARA KOMPONEN AGRO-ECOSYSTEM At the farm level, the relevant resource flows include labour and cash, and how these are deployed between different possible activities within and off the farm; how the outputs of one activity (e.g. a cropping system) might act as inputs for another; and the inputs and outputs of the farm system. Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  11. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS At the farm level, for example, such interactions include: The planting of two crops on the same plot within the same year or planting season. Intercropping or mixed cropping – where two or more crops are planted at the same or similar times (e.g. maize accompanied with beans, cowpeas, sweet potatoes, rice, squash, etc. in many small holdings); Relay cropping – where one crop is planted on the same plot towards the end of the life cycle of another (e.g. beans are often planted after the maize flowers and is doubled over in many parts of Latin America); Sequential crops – where one crop is planted after the harvest of another. Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  12. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS Interaksipadatingkatkomunitasatau regional: The use of an input by one type of farmer of the output of another type of farmer (e.g. specialised livestock farmers who buy the maize residue from specialised crop farmers); Different and competing uses of the same resource by different stakeholders; e.g.: a. Land - the conversion of communal land, used by pastoralists as specialized grazing reserves in dry years, to state-owned wheat farms in some parts of Africa. b. Water - the abstraction (or contamination) of stream water for irrigation by upstream crop farmers leading to lack (or pollution) of water used by downstream livestock owners). c. Labour – small farmers supplying wage labour for sugar or coffee harvest on plantations, leading to late planting or non-weeding on small holders own fields; farmers without livestock hiring their manual labour to ox-owners in exchange for ploughing services (which may then arrive later than the optimum planting time). Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  13. AGROEKOSISTEM LINGKUNGAN HIDUP TUMBUHAN. The movement of solution through the plant is dictated by a complex combination of internal and external forces. Bagaimana unsur hara dan air dalam tanah bergerak mendekati dan memasuki akar tumbuhan ? As we briefly examine the root environment, we will quickly review the actual movement of nutrients in and around the media as it approaches the root surface. What are the driving forces that allow elements in remote areas of the soil to find their way to the roots? Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  14. AGROEKOSISTEM: Neraca Air Tanaman Plant–environment interactions. Source: Licht and Isebrands (2005). Diunduhdari:….. 10/12/2012

  15. SIKLUS KARBON Plant life 'recycles' carbon dioxide faster than previously estimated. Interaksi tumbuhan dengan lingkungannya dalam proses fotosintesis dan siklus karbon. Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  16. FOTOSINTESIS Photosynthesis takes in carbon dioxide and water from the environment. It then uses sunlight to convert this into glucose and oxygen. CARBON DIOXIDE + WATER === GLUCOSE + OXYGEN 6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight ----> C6H12O6 + 6O2 Autotrophs relate to plants which plants are living organisms and how they interact with the sun (nonliving) and uses photosynthesis that requires energy from the sun. Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  17. NERACA AIR DI LAHAN PERTANIAN Evapotranspiration (ET) ada;ah jumlah evaporation dan transpiration dari permukaan lahan ke atmosfir. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies. Transpiration accounts for the movement of water within a plant and the subsequent loss of water as vapor through stomata in its leaves. Diunduhdari:….. 10/12/2012

  18. AGROEKOSISTEM Interaksi Tanaman-Gulma Tumbuhan menghasilkan beragam senyawa alamiah yang mampu menghambat atau menstimulir pertumbuhan tumbuhan lainnya (allelopathy) dan /atau mempengaruhi mikroba tanah yang ada di sekitarnya. As a result, crops, weeds, and soil life are linked through a web of chemical and microbiological communications that can be quite species-specific. Utilizing these chemical and microbiological interactions to design weed-suppressive crop rotations is a fascinating and potentially fruitful frontier in organic farming research. Figure: Mark Schonbeck, Virginia Association for Biological Farming. Diunduhdari:….. 10/12/2012

  19. AGROEKOSISTEM Interaksi Multitrophic antara tumbuhan dg mikroba di bawah tanah dan serangga di atas tanah. Different soil-borne microbes induce changes in the plant that affect herbivorous insects, their natural enemies and pollinators. The beneficial microbes enhance plant growth and induce resistance in aerial plant tissues, which both affect herbivore performance. The emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is the main cue triggering the attraction of beneficial insects, and this emission changes in response to microbe-plant interactions. Aboveground herbivory affects microbial communities belowground, possibly via changes in nutrient allocation, broad-spectrum induced defences and root exudates. Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  20. AGROEKOSISTEM Tanaman Brassica ditanam untuk menghasilkan minyak, panganm dan pakan, dan sangat penting secara ekonomis karena nilai gizinya, bahan obat, bahan bioindustri , biocontrol dan lainnya. Insect pests cause enormous yield and economic losses in Brassica crop production every year, and are a threat to global agriculture. In order to overcome these insect pests, Brassica species themselves use multiple defence mechanisms , which can be constitutive , inducible , induced, direct or indirect depending upon the insect or the degree of insect attack. Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  21. INTERAKSI AGROEKOSISTEM Interaksi allelopathy dan perilaku serangga: (A) herbivory influences production of allelopathic substances. (B) Chemical inducers enhance production of allelopathic substances. (C) Chemical compounds have both allelopathic and insect behavioural activity. (D) Plants exposed to allelopathy become less attractive to herbivores. (E) Plants exposed to allelopathy become more attractive to herbivore natural enemies. Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012

  22. ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM (aea). . ANALISIS agroecosystem merupakan analisis tentang lingkungan pertanian yang meliputi aspek-aspek ecology, sociology, economics, dan politik. An agroecosystem analysis approach might be used to determine the sustainability of an agricultural system. It has become apparent, however, that the "sustainability" of the system depends heavily on the definition of sustainability chosen by the observer. The Agroecosystem analysis is used to bring the richness of the true complexity of agricultural systems to an analysis to identify reconfigurations of the system (or holon) that will best suit individual situations. Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  23. ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. The main reasons for conducting AEA are to: Describe upland land-use systems of selected study areas. Identify, demarcate and map agro-ecological zones of selected study areas. Describe the physical and socio-economic characteristics and conditions of agroecological or forestry zones identified. Identify agricultural, forestry and socio-economic issues and problems existing in the zones so that they can be addressed by extension or research programmes. Provide district authorities with information that can be used to plan development activities to address poverty. Strengthen district skills and capacities in agro-ecological zoning and rural development planning. Match available agricultural and forestry technology options with identified agricultural sub-systems or recommendation domains. Promote co-operation and linkages between research and development. . Agro-ecosystem analysis (AEA) is a methodology for zoning and analysing agricultural systems in order to plan and prioritise research and development activities in the fields of agriculture and natural resource management. It uses a holistic or systems approach to gather bio-physical and socio-economic information and, within the ecosystem, to identify key issues or problems that will be useful for rural development, extension and research programmes. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  24. PROSEDUR AEA AEA is based on the concepts of systems, hierarchies, agro-ecosystem zones, and the system properties of productivity, stability, sustainability and equitability. THE AEA follows a step-by-step procedure to decide on the purpose of the analysis, to define precisely the system(s) of study, identify its boundaries, its position in the hierarchy of other systems and its major components and their key interactions. As an understanding of the system is developed, a limited number of key issues begin to emerge which are then used to guide later analysis and to plan further follow-up studies in the field. As these issues are clarified and understood, key questions and hypotheses are proposed, elaborated and used to identify research and extension priorities. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  25. .OUTPUT AEA The most important and useful outputs that AEA provides are: The delineation and description (biophysical and socio-economic) of distinct agro-ecological zones at the agro-ecosystem level chosen, i.e. District or Development Area. An improved, holistic understanding of the major farming and livelihood systems of each zone. A prioritised list of important problems and opportunities for each zone. A prioritised set of research, extension and development proposals to solve the problems. Enhanced interdisciplinary cooperation and improved research and extension linkages. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  26. ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA AEA uses a variety of tools to assist with the analysis of space, time, flow and decision- making. Many are similar to PRA tools and all emphasise simplicity, participation and objectivity. Historical profiles (time analysis tool): Historical profiles or 'timelines' are used to identify key events and analyse changes and trends over the longer term. They review major occurrences over a number of decades and usually rely heavily on local knowledge. Their purpose is twofold: firstly, to try to identify longer-term trends, for example changes in forest cover, trends in rice yields, changes in livelihood systems, etc. Secondly, they are used to assess the robustness of the agro-ecosystem to major perturbations such as flood/drought, pest outbreaks, market-price fluctuations, etc. Transect diagrams (space analysis tool) Transect diagrams are used to describe and compare each agro-ecological zone according to a number of key agro-ecological and socio-economic parameters. Transects help to ensure that all relevant information is collected and clearly organised for each agro-ecological zone; they also assist in the analysis by facilitating comparisons and identifying important relationships among the zones. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  27. TRANSEK AGROEKOSISTEM. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  28. TRANSEK AGROEKOSISTEM. Landscape position of riparian wetlanda in the piedmont and coastal plain of North Carolina. The landscape position of a riparian-type wetland is shown schematically in figure . Drainage water leaving either rural or urban uplands must pass through the riparian area before reaching the stream. During that journey, chemical, physical, and biological processes in the riparian area have the opportunity to alter the quality of the water reaching the stream. Diunduhdari: …….. 10/12/2012

  29. TRANSEK AGROEKOSISTEM. Trapping Sediment and Phosphorus It is found that riparian wetlands remove large amounts of sediment and phosphorus from surface runoff. The figure shows the dense vegetative growth usually present at the field-forest edge of riparian areas. This growth slows the flow of the surface water, depositing much of the coarser sediment, as shown schematically in figure. As the water moves further through the wetland into the higher-order streams and finally into the floodplain swamp, the texture of the deposited sediments becomes finer and finer. By the time it reaches the floodplain swamp, the sediment layer is extremely thin and consists mostly of clay-sized particles. Diunduhdari: …….. 10/12/2012

  30. TIME-ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. The figure shows a timeline for a 12-week FFS that is synchronized with a planting season to start a week after transplanting. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012 A simplified diagram of the population dynamics of the species studied. Sumber:

  31. ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Venn diagrams (decision analysis tool): Venn diagrams are used to analyse relationships among agro-ecosystem communities, and projects and agencies providing support to them. They are useful in identifying potential development partners or detecting where inter-agency cooperation could be improved. In Venn diagrams, overlapping circles represent good cooperation, touching circles represent some cooperation and non-touching circles represent poor or no cooperation. Venn diagram showing the proportion of men who disclosed perpetration of different types of rape. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  32. ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. Diagram Venn yang menun jukkan jumlah dan persentase sampel rumahtangga petani (n = 177) yang menggunakan benih jagung lokal, modern-hibrida dan daur-ulang. Diunduhdari:….. 10/12/2012

  33. ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Kalender Musiman (time analysis tool): Seasonal calendars are also used to analyse time related changes for each agro-ecosystem, but over the shorter term (within- year). Climate, cropping patterns, major agricultural operations, labour use, price movements, social activities, etc. are pre- sented by month so that com- parisons can be made and key periods identified. Diagram Alir (flow analysis tool): Flow diagrams are used to analyse the flow of materials , money , information , labour , etc. both from outside and within the system. Flows occur both up and down the hierarchy, i.e. from village to district to province, and from one agro-ecosystem zone to another , e.g. grazing cattle migration from zone to zone in different seasons. Various schematic means of representing these flows exist and can be selected according to participants' needs and capacities. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  34. KALENDER MUSIMAN - AGROEKOSISTEM. The seasonal calendar is a tool and not simply a product. Once it is completed it should be used as the basis for discussion about the variables included within it. Seasonal calendars are easy to record. Notes on the discussions of the calendars should also be made. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  35. BAGAN ALIR ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. The relationships between agronomic and environmental factors affecting soil, plant, crop and animal health. (WUE = water use efficiency) Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  36. ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Problem-cause diagrams (decision analysis tool): Problem-cause diagrams or 'problem-solution trees' are used to analyse the causes of problems, identify the linkages between them, understand the way farmers cope with the problem, and identify appropriate solutions. Problem diagrams begin with a broad statement of the overall problem, which is then broken down into component problems, and eventually the root causes; these are then examined to identify farmer responses to the problem, and finally, alternative solutions are proposed. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  37. . The Cause and Effect Diagram The Cause and Effect Diagram is also referred as Fishbone Diagram is a graphical technique that can be employed in teams to distinguish and arrange the reasons of an event or outcome or problem. It graphically illustrates the stratified relationship among the causes as per their level of significance or item and a given outcome. It is also known as Ishikawa Diagram. Diunduhdari:….. 10/12/2012

  38. KOMPONEN ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. Perkebunan pisang sebagai suatu Agroekosistem. (Source: C. E. Hernandez and S. G. Witter, 'Evaluating and managing the environmental impact of banana production in Costa Rica', Ambio, 25 (1996), p173. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  39. ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Tabel Ciri-ciri Sistem (system properties analysis tool): Empat ciri-ciri agroekosistem adalah: productivity, stability, sustainability dan equitability, dianalisis dengan menggunakan alat bantu Tabel - Ciri-ciri - Sistem. Analysis proceeds by listing those attributes of the agro-ecosystem, which have positive and negative effects on the four system properties, and explaining the way this occurs. This identification of the important elements in each system encourages a more balanced analysis than the traditional focus on productivity would provide. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  40. ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Ranking Berpasangan (Alat untuk menyusun prioritas): Ranking berpasangan ini dapat digunakan untuk menyusun ranking secara obyektif isu-isu, problematik dan solusi-solusi. Objectivity is improved if multidisciplinary groups conduct the ranking, as it then incorporates a variety of different per-spectives and points of view. Pairwise ranking proceeds by listing the problems to be compared, and then comparing each problem with every other problem, in turn. When all comparisons have been completed, the scores are totalled to provide a ranking of the relative importance of each. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  41. ALAT BANTU ANALISIS DALAM AEA Pendugaan Dampak Once proposed solutions to the key problems have been generated by AEA, a simple assessment technique can be used to assess the impact of each proposed solution on important cross-cutting issues such as gender, poverty and the environment. Hasil pendugaan dampak ini digunakan untuk memodifikasi setiap alternatif solusi (proyek) guna memaksimumkan dampak positif dan meminimumkan dampak negatifnya. Diunduhdari: ….. 8/12/2012

  42. KOMPONEN ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. Pada tingkat ekosistem dapat digunakan Metode Pemodelan dan GIS untuk menganalisis struktur damn manajemen sistem. Population models must be built up from the individual physiological and behavioural level and be driven by soil factors and weather. Policy issues must include social science components impinging on the agroecosystem structure and function. Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  43. ASPEK-ASPEK PENTING DALAM ANALISIS AGROEKOSISTEM. Faktor-faktorapasaja yang menentukankonfigurasiagroecosystem ? How does one quantify the sustainability of the farm holon (economic, social, political, ecological and/or other)? How does the farmer or farm family perceive an agroecosystem? What is the farmer doing now, and how do those practices or actions affect the viability of the agroecosystem? Can the farmer maintain his livelihood continuing with current practices? What does the farmer value and where do those values come from? Apakahpetanimempertimbangkankonfigurasiusahatanialternatif? Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  44. . NERACA HARA PADA AGRO-ECOSYSTEM Plant Nutrient Balances in the Asian and Pacific Region - the Consequences for Agricultural Production. Ernst W. Mutert. FOOD AND FERTILIZER TECHNOLOGY CENTER Seresah panen Hasil Tanaman Kehilangan N: Pencucian Gas N2 Erosi tanah Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  45. KAJIAN KESEHATAN AGROEKOSISTEM Mencari solusi: Negosiasi & Pengambilan-keputusan Analisis stakeholder dan kelembagaan: Kekuasaan, Pengambilan keputusan, Perspektif Rekonstruksi Sistem: Sintesis Sistem Dekonstruksi Sistem: Analisis sistem Model subsistem Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 11-15 May 1998  Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  46. THE AMOEBA READINGThe basic idea of the amoeba reading is to provide a graphic representation of system performance as assessed over a certain number of aspects/qualities that cannot be expressed as a function of the others. Amoeba reading applied to a subsistence farming household. Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 11-15 May 1998  Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  47. THE AMOEBA READINGThe basic idea of the amoeba reading is to provide a graphic representation of system performance as assessed over a certain number of aspects/qualities that cannot be expressed as a function of the others. Amoeba reading applied to a farming household in a developed country. Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 11-15 May 1998  Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  48. Model AGRO-ECOSYSTEM Output agro-ekosistem Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 11-15 May 1998  Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  49. .MODEL AGROEKOSISTEM Output agroekosistem berupa jasa-jasa amenitas, produk dan limbah. Lingkungan eksternal dan aktyivitas manusia mempengaruhi tipe, kualitas dan kuantitas output melalui “subsidi” kepada sistem. The external environment and the human activity system influence the type, quality and quantity of output through subsidy to the system. The more detailed models can be used to study system behaviour in terms of various ecosystem health attributes (and hence indicators). Karakteristik sistem, seperti integritas, adaptabilitas, effisiensi, effectivitas, resiliensi, produktivitas, stabilitas dan equitas pada berbagai kondisi biasanya beragam sesuai dengan perilaku sistem. Values taken by attributes under these conditions will be taken as reflecting system thresholds, targets and ranges. Proceedings of an IDRC -ILRI international workshop held at ILRI, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 11-15 May 1998  Diunduhdari:….. 8/12/2012

  50. . Hierarkhi agro-ekosistem Diunduhdari: ….. 10/12/2012