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Nominals

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Nominals

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  1. Nominals One-word Nouns, Noun Phrases, Noun Clauses Ch 7

  2. Noun functions in a sentence I • Subject of the verb • Two girls made the team. • Object of the verb or verbal • direct object • While we were cooking dinner, John rang the doorbell, interrupting our evening together. • indirect object • We taught her the facts she needed to pass the test. Ch 7

  3. Noun functions in a sentence II • Object of a preposition • I placed a flowerpot on the windowsill. • Subject complement • After years of study, she became a physician. • Object complement • His teacher made him the hall monitor. • Appositive (noun in apposition) • My sister Catherine called me yesterday. Ch 7

  4. Noun Phrases--Gerunds • Gerunds are formed from the present participle, or “ing” form of the verb, and are part verb and part noun. • Like verbs, they have subjects, objects, complements, and may be modified by adverbs • Like nouns, they may be subjects, direct objects, complements, appositives, objects of prepositions, and may be modified by adjectives Ch 7

  5. Tense and Voice in Gerunds • Gerunds have two tenses and both voices • present tense and active voice • Holding me responsible for your errors will hurt you. • present tense and passive voice • Being held responsible for your errors angered me. • past tense and active voice • Having held me responsible for your errors cost you. • past tense and passive voice • Having been held responsible for your errors was unfortunate for my career. Ch 7

  6. Gerund as subject • Running two laps daily is good for you. is good Running | laps two daily for you Main clause—pattern 2; gerund phrase—pattern 7 Ch 7

  7. Gerund as direct object • He made winning the election his top priority. winning election the He made priority top his Main clause—pattern 10; gerund phrase—pattern 7 Ch 7

  8. Gerund as Subject Complement • Good preparation for a career on stage is interning with an off-Broadway company. interning with preparation is company for an career Good on a off-Broadway stage Main clause—pattern 3; gerund phrase—pattern 6 Ch 7

  9. Gerund as Object of Preposition • By exercising vigorously, she lost 10 lbs. Main clause— pattern 7; gerund phrase— pattern 6 she lost lbs By 10 exercising vigorously Note that this prepositional phrase could be read adverbially Ch 7

  10. Gerund as noun in apposition • Our top concern, being flat broke, was not easily solved by her patronizing advice. broke Main clause— pattern 7 passive; gerund phrase— pattern 2 being flat concern ( ) was solved by not top easily advice Our her patronizing Ch 7

  11. Noun Phrases—Infinitives • Infinitives are formed from the base form of the verb, and are part verb and part noun. • Like verbs, they have subjects, objects, complements, and may be modified by adverbs • Like nouns, they may be subjects, direct objects, complements, appositives, and may be modified by adjectives • Unlike gerunds, infinitives are rarely object complements or indirect objects or objects of prepositions Ch 7

  12. Infinitive as Subject or Direct object • To be a teacher is her ambition. • Main clause—pattern 3 • infinitive phrase—pattern 3 • John really wanted to give her a Mt. Everestclimbing vacation. • Main clause—pattern 7 • Infinitive phrase—pattern 8 Ch 7

  13. Infinitives as subject complements or appositives • His solution to his mother’s cancer is to be a research physician and find a cure. • Main clause—pattern 3 • Infinitive phrases—”to be” is pattern 3 and “(to) find” is pattern 7 • His burning ambition, to star on Broadway, was not realized. • Main clause—pattern 7 passive • Infinitive phrase—pattern 6 Ch 7

  14. Noun clauses • Noun clauses are dependent clauses with their own subject and verb and sentence pattern, yet they are embedded in the main clause and fill a sentence slot in the main clause. • When working with embedded noun clause, FIND THE VERB in the main clause first. Ch 7

  15. Noun clause as subject in main clause • Why I bother to study for tests I always fail is a mystery to me. I fail (that) to study for tests always I bother why is mystery to a Main clause—pattern 3; noun clause— pattern 7; adj clause—pattern 7; infinitive phrase—pattern 6 me Ch 7

  16. Noun clause as Direct object in main clause • My sister always wanted whatever I had just purchased. • Main clause—pattern 7; noun clause—pattern 7 • “whatever is DO in noun clause • Entire noun clause “whatever . . . purchased” is DO in main clause. • Sentences containing noun clauses need not have main clauses that can stand alone as independent sentences Ch 7

  17. Noun clause as subject complement in main clause • Your erroneous belief is that violence will not cause more bloodshed. • Main clause—pattern 3; noun clause—pattern 7 • This noun clause begins with the expletive “that”: • “that” has no function in the noun clause • For example, in the noun clause above “violence” is the subject and “bloodshed” the DO of the clause • Noun clause can also begin with interrogatives—why, how, what, where, when, who, whose, whom • These interrogatives always have a function in the noun clause Ch 7

  18. Noun clause as appositive • The sorority’s spring vacation destination, wherever college boys hang out, was hotly debated by the members. • Main clause—pattern 7 passive; noun clause—pattern 6 boys hang out___________ wherever destination ( ) was debated by hotly members Ch 7

  19. Noun clause as object of preposition • We should worry about why he has left the club, as it reflects badly on us. • Main clause—pattern 6; noun clause—pattern 7; adverb clause “as . . . us”—pattern 6 We should worry he has left club why about as It reflects on badly us Ch 7