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Careers in Health Care

Careers in Health Care. The Health Care Professional. Introduction to Health Careers. More than 250 different health care careers Education requirements vary for every career

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Careers in Health Care

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  1. Careers in Health Care The Health Care Professional

  2. Introduction to Health Careers • More than 250 different health care careers • Education requirements vary for every career • Health Science Technology Education: prepare a student for immediate employment or for additional education after graduation • Some require an associate’s degree: awarded by a career/ technical school or a community college after completion of a prescribed two-year course of study

  3. Introduction to Health Care • Bachelor’s degree: which is awarded by a college or university after a prescribed course of study that usually lasts for four or more years • Master’s degree: awarded by a college or university after completion of one or more years of work beyond a bachelor’s degree • Doctorate/doctoral/doctor’s degree: awarded by a college or university after completion of two or more years or work beyond a bachelor’s or master’s degree

  4. Introduction to Health Careers • National Consortium on Health Science and Technology Education (NCHSTE) • allows a student to see how early career awareness and exploration provide the foundation for making informed choices to prepare for a career in health care

  5. Certification, Registration, and Licensure • Certification: a person has fulfilled requirements of education and performance and meets the standards and qualifications established by the professional association or government agency that regulates a particular event • Registration: performed by a regulatory body that administers examinations and maintains a current list of qualified personnel in a given health care area

  6. Certification, Registration, and Licensure • Licensure: a process whereby a government agency authorizes individuals to work in a given occupation • Usual requirements for licensure: completion of an approved educational program, pass a state board test, and maintain certain standards

  7. Accreditation • Graduation from an accredited program is required before certification, registration, and/or licensure will be granted • Ensures that the program of study meets the established quality of competency standards and prepares students for employment in the health career • Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) • Accrediting Bureau of Health Education Schools (ABHES)

  8. Continuing Education Units • Required to renew licenses or maintain certification or registration in many states • Must obtain additional hours of education in the specific health career area during a specified period • Health care workers should be aware of the state requirements regarding CEUs for their given careers

  9. Education Levels Trends and Opportunities • Four levels: professional, technologist/therapist, technician, and aide or assistant • Multi-competent or multi-skilled worker: can perform a variety of health care skills • Entrepreneur: an individual who organizes, manages, and assumes the risk of all business

  10. National Health Care Skill Standards • National Health Care Skill Standards (NHCSS) • Developed to indicate the knowledge and skills that are expected of health care workers primarily at entry and technical levels • Seven groups of Standards

  11. NHCSS • Health Care Core Standards: specify the knowledge and skills that most health care workers should have • Discuss an academic foundation, communication skills, employability skills, legal responsibilities, ethics, safety practices, teamwork, information technology applications, technical skills, health maintenance practices, and knowledge about the systems in the health care environment

  12. NHCSS • Therapeutic/Diagnostic Core Standards: specify the knowledge and skills required to focus on direct patient care in both the therapeutic and diagnostic health care careers • Include: health maintenance practices, pt interaction, intrateam communication, monitoring pt status, and pt movement

  13. NHCSS • Therapeutic Cluster Standards (therapeutic services): specify the knowledge and skills required of workers in health care careers that are involved in changing the health status of the pt over time • Includes: interacting with pt, communicating with team members, collecting info, planning tx, implementing procedures, monitoring pt status, and evaluating pt response to tx

  14. NHCSS • Diagnostic Cluster Standards (diagnostic services): specify the knowledge and skills required of workers in health care careers that involved in creating a picture of the health status of the pt at a single point in time • Includes: communicating oral and written info, assessing pt health status, moving and positioning pt safely and efficiently, explaining procedures, performing diagnostic procedures, evaluating test results, and reporting required info

  15. NHCSS • Health Informatics Services Cluster Standards: specify the knowledge and skills required of workers in health care careers that are involved with the documentation of pt care • Includes: communicating info accurately within legal boundaries, analyzing records and documents, designing and/or implementing effective information systems, documenting information, and understanding operations to enter, retrueve, and maintain information

  16. NHCSS • Support (Environmental) Services Cluster Standards: specify the knowledge and skills required of workers in health care careers that are involved with creating a therapeutic environment to provide direct or indirect pt care • Includes: developing and implementing the administration, quality control, and compliance regulations of a health care facility • Maintaining a clean and safe environment through aseptic techniques • Managing resources • Maintaining an aesthetically appealing environment

  17. NHCSS • Biotechnology Research and Development Standards: specify the knowledge and skill required of workers in health care careers that are involved in bioscience research and development • Include: comprehending how biotechnology contributes to health and the qol, developing a strong foundation in math and science principles, performing biotechnology techniques, understanding and following lab protocols and principles, working with product design and development, and complying with bioethical policies

  18. Intro to Health Careers • On-the-Job: training while working at a job • HSTE Program: health science technology program • Associate’s Degree: two-year associate’s degree • Bachelor’s Degree: four-year bachelor’s degree • Master’s Degree: one or more years beyond a bachelor’s degree to obtain a master’s degree • Doctoral (Doctor’s) Degree: doctorate with four or more years beyond a bachelor’s degree

  19. Intro to Health Careers • Because requirements for various health care careers can vary from state to state, it is important for students to obtain information pertinent to their respective states

  20. Therapeutic Service Careers • Directed toward changing the health status of the pt over time • Workers are a variety of tx to help pt who are injured, physically or mentally disabled, or emotionally disturbed • All tx is directed toward allowing pt to function at max capacity

  21. Therapeutic Services Centers • Places of employment: rehab facilities, hospitals, clinics, mental health facilities, daycare facilities, long-term care facilities, home health care agencies, schools, and government agencies

  22. Dental Careers • Focus on the health of the teeth and the soft tissues of the mouth • Directed toward preventing dental disease, repairing or replacing diseased or damaged teeth, and tx the gingiva (gums) and other supporting teeth structures

  23. Dental Careers • Places of Employment: private dental offices, labs, and clinics; or dental depts in hospitals, schools, health depts, or government agencies • Most work in general dentistry practices • Endodontics: tx of diseases of the pulp, nerves, blood vessels, and roots of the teeth; often called root canal tx • Orthodontics: alignment or straightening of the teeth

  24. Dental Careers • Oral Surgery: surgery of the teeth, mouth, jaw and facial bones; often called maxillofacial surgery • Pedodontics: dental tx of children and adolescents • Periodontics: tx and prevention of diseases of the gums, bone, and structures supporting the teeth • Prosthodontics: replacement of natural teeth with artificial teeth or dentures

  25. Dentist (DMD or DDS) • Doctors who examine teeth and mouth tissues to diagnose and treat disease and abnormalities • Perform corrective surgery on the teeth, gums, tissues, and supporting bones • Work to prevent dental disease

  26. Dental Hygenist (DHs) • Work under the supervision of dentists • Perform preliminary exams of the teeth and mouth • Remove stains and deposits from teeth, • Expose and develop radiographs • Apply cavity-preventing agents such as fluorides or pit and fissure sealants to the teeth • Perform other preventive or therapeutic services to help the pt develop and maintain good dental health

  27. Dental Lab Tech (DLTs) • Make and repair a variety of dental prostheses such as dentures, crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances according to the specifications of dentists • Specialties: dental ceramist and orthodontic tech

  28. Dental Assistants (DAs) • Working under the supervision of dentists • Prepare pt for exams • Pass Instruments • Prepare dental materials for impressions and restorations • Take and develop radiographs • Teach preventive dental care • Sterilize instruments • Perform dental receptionist duties such as scheduling appts and handling accounts

  29. Emergency Medical Services • Provide emergency, prehospital care to victims of accidents, injuries, or sudden illnesses • Places of Employment: fire and police depts, rescue squads, ambulance services, hospital or private emergency rooms, urgent care centers, industry, emergency helicopter services, and the military

  30. Levels of EMT • EMT basic • EMT intermediate • EMT paramedic

  31. Emergency Medical Services • First Responder: the first person to arrive at the scene of an illness or injury • Interviews and examines the victim to identify the illness or cause of injury • Calls for emergency medical assistance as needed • Maintains safety and infection control at the scene • Provides basic emergency medical care

  32. Emergency Medical Services • Certified First Responder (CFR) course prepares individuals by teaching airway management, oxygen administration, bleeding control, and CPR

  33. Emergency Medical Services • Emergency Medical Tech Basic (EMT-B): provide care for a wide range of illnesses and injuries including medical emergencies, bleeding, fx, airway obstruction, basic life support (BLS), oxygen administration, emergency childbirth, rescue of trapped persons, and transporting of victims

  34. Emergency Medical Services • Emergency Medical Tech Defibrillator (EMT-D): new level of EMT-B that allows EMT-Bs with additional training and competency in basic life support to administer electrical defibrillation to certain heart attack victims • Emergency Medical Tech Intermediate (EMT-I): perform the same tasks as do EMT-Bs together with assessing pt, interpreting ECGs, administering defibrillation as needed, managing shock, using intravenous equipment, and inserting esophageal airways

  35. Emergency Medical Services • Emergency Medical Tech Paramedic (EMT-P): perform all the basic EMT duties plus in-depth pt assessment, provision of ACLS, ECG interpretation, endotracheal intubation, drug administration, and operation of complex equipment

  36. Medical Careers • A broad category encompassing physicians and other individuals who work in any of the varied careers under the supervision of physicians • Places of Employment: private practices, clinics, hospitals, public health agencies, research facilities, HMOs, gov’t agencies, and colleges or universities

  37. Medical Careers • Physicians: examine pt, obtain medical hx, order tests, make dx, perform surgery, tx diseases/disorders, and teach preventive health • Doctor of Medicine (MD): dx, tx, prevents disease and disorders • Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO): tx diseases/disorder, placing special emphasis on the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems, and the relationship between the body, mind, and emotions

  38. Medical Careers • Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM): examines, dx, and tx diseases/disorders of the foot or of the leg below the knee • Doctor of Chiropractic (DC): focuses on ensuring proper alignment of the spine and optimal operation of the nervous and muscular systems to maintain health • Physician Assistants (PAs): working under the supervision of physicians, take medical hx; perform routine physical exams and basic diagnostic tests; make preliminary diagnoses; treat minor injuries; and prescribe and administer appropriate tx

  39. Medical Careers • Pathology Assistants: work under the direct supervision of pathologists, perform both gross and microscopic autopsy exams • Medical Assistants (MAs): work under the supervision of physicians; prepare pt for exam; take vital signs and medical hx; assist with procedures and tx; perform basic lab tests; prepare and maintain equipment and supplies; and/or perform secretarial-receptionist duties

  40. Mental and Social Services • Focus on helping people with mental or emotional disorders or those who are developmentally delayed or mentally impaired • Places of Employment: hospitals; psychiatric hospitals or clinics; home health care agencies; public health dept; gov’t agencies; crisis or counseling centers; drug and alcohol tx facilities; prisons; educational institutions; and LTC facilities

  41. Mental and Social Services Careers • Psychiatrists: physicians who specialize in diagnosing and treating mental illness • Specialties: child or adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, and drug/chemical abuse • Psychologists: study human behavior and use this knowledge to help individuals deal with problems of everyday living • Specialties: child psychology; adolescent psychology; geriatric psychology; behavioral psychology; drug/chemical abuse; physical/sexual abuse

  42. Mental and Social Services Careers • Psychiatric/mental health technicians: work under the supervision of a psychiatrist or psychologist, helps pt and their families follow tx and rehab plans • Include: provide understanding and encouragement, assist with physical care, observe and report behavior, and help teach pt constructive social behavior

  43. Mental and Social Services Careers • Social Workers: aka sociologists, case managers, or counselors; aid people who have difficulty coping with various problems by helping them make adjustments in their lives and/or by referring them to community resources for assistants • Includes: child welfare, geriatrics, family, correctional (jail), and occupational social work

  44. Mental and Social Services Careers • Genetic Counselors: provide information to individuals and families on genetic diseases or inherited conditions; research the risk for occurrence of the disease or birth defect, analyze inheritance patterns, perform screening tests for potential genetic disease or birth defect is present, and help individuals cope with the psychological issues caused by genetic diseases • Specialize in: prenatal counseling pediatric counseling neurogenetics, cardiogenetics, or genetic influences on career

  45. Mortuary Careers • Provide a service that is needed by everyone • Funeral practices and rites vary because of cultural diversity and religion • Most services include preparation of the body, performance of a ceremony that honors the decreased and meets the spiritual needs of the living and cremation or burial of the remains

  46. Mortuary Careers • Funeral Directors: aka morticians or undertakers; provide support to the survivors; interview the family of the decreased to establish details of the funeral ceremonies or review arrangements the decreased person requested prior to death; prepare the body following legal requirements; secure

  47. Mortuary Careers • Embalmers: prepare the body for interment by washing the body with germicidal soap, replacing the blood with embalming fluid to preserve the body, reshaping and restructuring disfigured bodies, applying cosmetics to create a natural appearance, dressing the body, and placing it in a casket; responsible for maintaining embalming reports and itemized lists of clothing or valuables

  48. Mortuary Careers • Mortuary Assistants: under the supervision of the funeral director and/or embalmer; may assist with preparation of the body, drive the hearse to pick up the body after death or to take it to the burial sight; arrange flowers for the viewing, assist with preparations for the funeral service, help with filing and maintenance of records, cleaning the funeral home, and other similar duties

  49. Nursing Careers • Registered Nurse: under the direction of physicians and provide total care to pt; observes, assesses needs, reports to other HC personnel, administers rx and tx, teaches HC, and supervises other nursing personnel

  50. Nursing Careers • Nurse Practitioners CRNPs: take health hx, perform basic physical exams, order lab tests and other procedures, refer pt to physicians, help esttx plans, tx common illnesses, and teach and promote optimal health

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