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OPERATING SYSTEMS (2)

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  1. Department of Computer Science Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology Information Technology 1 OPERATING SYSTEMS (2)

  2. MS-DOS • singleuser, singletask operating system for PC • derived from CPM • very popular in 80. and the first half of 90. years • shell (command line) still useful in Windows like OS • Microsoft comp. starting

  3. MS-DOS Basic commands help: command /? program loading and starting: <file> or <path\file> set actual disk: <disk>: set actual directory (folder) direct subfolder: cd <directory> any folder: cd <path\directory> parent folder: cd .. view content of actual folder full content: dir compressed content: dir /w content with paging: dir /p (dir | more) create folder: md <directory> delete folder: rd <directory> delete file: del <file> rename file: ren <old> <new> view content of text file: type <file> move file: move <file> <new position> copy file: copy <file> <new position> create system disk:sys <disk>: partitioning disk:fdisk formatting disk:format <disk>:

  4. UNIX • files and directories have their owner (user, group) • access control list contain the rights for manipulating • owner (U) • group of owner (G) • others (O) • type of rights • R (read) – file reading, directory content • W (write) – changes in file and directory content • X (execute) – program executing, dir. entry • drwxrwxrwx-rw-r-----drwxr-xr-x

  5. UNIX Basic commandshelp: man command program executing: <path/file> set actual directory direct subfolder: cd <dir> random folder: cd <path/folder> parent folder: cd .. content of actual directory full listing: ls –l (ll) shortlisting: ls –f (lsf) paged listing:ll | more create directory: mkdir <dir> deletedirectory: rmdir <dir> delete file: rm <file> rename (move) file: mv <old> <new> view content of file:cat <file> copyfile:cp <what> <where>

  6. General UNIX Architecture

  7. Windows NT • Windows NT Workstation • Windows NT Server • Selected properties: • platform independent (HAL) • preemptive multitasking • user validating • NTFS – secure file system • communication protocols support for  LAN and WAN • graphic tools for system administering • domain philosophy • Domain = logicalgroup of computers with shared set of users and other resources • higher reliability

  8. Configuration • control panels • registry – application regedit or regedt32 • HKEY_CURRENT_USER - config. of actual logged user • HKEY_USERS – profiles of all users • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE – config. od computer (for all users) • HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT – subset of HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE • HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG – actually used HW profile • User account • Groups: • local • global • Standard groups: • Everyone • Administrators • System

  9. Windows 2000 • exploits the power of today’s 32-bit microprocessors • modular structure for flexibility • executes on a variety of hardware platforms • modified microkernel architecture • not a pure microkernel • many system functions outside of the microkernel run in kernel mode • any module can be removed, upgraded, or replaced without rewriting the entire system

  10. Windows 2000 – Layered Structure • Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) • isolates the operating system from platform- specific hardware differences • Microkernel • most-used and most fundamental components of the operating system • Device drivers • translate user I/O function calls into specific hardware device I/O requests

  11. W2K Executive • I/O manager • Object manager • Security reference monitor • Process/thread manager • Local procedure call (LPC) Facility • Virtual memory manager • Cache manager • Windows/graphics modules

  12. Windows 2000 – User Processes • Special system support processes • Ex: logon process and the session manager • Server processes • Environment subsystems • User applications

  13. Windows 2000 – Client/Server Model • Simplifies the Executive • - possible to construct a variety of APIs • Improves reliability • - each service runs as a separate process with its own partition of memory • - clients cannot not directly access hardware • Provides a uniform means from applications to communicate via LPC • Provides base for distributed computing

  14. Windows 2000 – Threads and SMP • SMP – Symmetric Multiprocessing • Different routines can execute simultaneously on different processors • Multiple threads of execution within a single process may execute on different processors simultaneously • Server processes may use multiple threads • Share data and resources between process

  15. Windows 2000 Architecture

  16. Resource sharing • disk, folder, file, printer etc. – can be offered for sharing • controlled permissions to the shared resources

  17. NTFS • long names support, owner, access control • permissions: • RRead – read file/folder contents • W Write – change file/folder contents, create new files/subfolders • X eXecute – execute a program, traverse folder • D Delete – delete file/folder • P Change Permissions – change file’s/folder’s permission settings • O Take Ownership – take file/folder ownership • Some standard permission groups (Windows NT): • Read (RX) (RX) • Change (RWXD) (RWXD) • Full Control All All • No Access

  18. Windows Me • Windows Millenium Edition • Deset hlavních důvodů pro inovaci na OS Windows Me • importování a úprava domácích videofilmů • přesun sbírky fotografií z krabice od bot na pevný disk • vytvoření archivu a rejstříku oblíbené hudby • ochrana důležitých souborů • obnovení původních nastavení počítače • nalezení odpovědí na hledané otázky • použití počítače k programování videa či termostatu • propojení počítačů v domácnosti • efektivnější komunikace s přáteli a spolupracovníky • hraní her na nové úrovni • http://www.microsoft.com/cze/windows/windowsME/upgrade/upgradewhy.asp

  19. Windows XP • Windows XP Professional – vhodný pro firmy a náročné uživatele; postaven na základě jádra použitého v systémech Windows 2000 a Windows NT Workstation – NT Kernel; vysoká úroveň výkonu, bezpečnosti a stability • Windows XP Home Edition – zejména pro domácí použití

  20. Windows CE • Windows pro přenosná zařízení typu Handheld PC nebo Palm PC • zcela odlišná verze Windows, která není kompatibilní s X86 based Windows • začínají uplatňovat jako AutoPC tj. počítač do auta