Developmental Psychology Chapter 10: Perspectives on Adolescent Development Chapter 11: Physical Development
Adolescence • What are some of the major challenges of adolescence? • What are the major physical changes that accompany this stage? • What were some of your memorable experiences during this stage (good or bad)?
Transitions To Adulthood • Adolescence • Transitional stage between childhood and adulthood. • This period has been prolonged in modern society. • ________________________ • Period at which person reaches sexual maturity. • Pubescence is used to denote the whole period during which changes relative to sexual maturation are taking place. • Includes biological, psychological, and social changes.
Rites of Passage • Many cultures have unique ceremonies to celebrate transitions to adulthood. • Quinceaneras, Bar-mitzvah, Sweet 16, Vine jumping, Piercing ceremonies, Clitoris removal. • Apache Video • African Female Circumcision Video
Primary Task of Adolescence • According to Erikson the chief psychosocial task of adolescence is ____________________________________________ • Tasks include: • Sexual • Social • Physical • Moral • Vocational • Psychological
Erikson • Development of Identity • Experimentation of various roles without assuming any one role. • Length of adolescence and degree of conflict experienced by adolescents will vary by culture and society. • Failure to establish identity during this time creates self doubt and role confusion. • Links to alcoholism, delinquency, social withdrawal, and anxiety.
Identity Statuses • Moratorium • Exploration period • Foreclosure • Refers to the individual who has undergone no or very little exploration. • Person remains firmly committed to childhood based values. • ____________________________ • No commitment to any definite direction in their lives. • Least developmentally advanced of the statuses. • Achievement • ___________________________________________________________________________________________
Tasks of Adolescence • Accepting ones physique and using the body effectively. • Achieving emotional independence from _______________________________. • Achieving a masculine or feminine social sex role. • Achieving new and more mature relations with peers of both sexes. • Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior. • Acquiring a set of values and an ethical system as a guide to behavior. • Preparing for an ______________________. • Preparing for marriage and family life.
___________________ • The adjustment of minority groups to the culture of the dominant group. • Class discussion • How many students were raised in a home with different cultural expectations? • How did the values of the cultures differ? • How did you navigate these differences? • How did these differences affect your relationships with your parents and peers? • How will you deal with this issue when you have children?
Physical Development • The Endocrine Gland • A gland that secretes hormones into the blood stream. • Three glands to know • Pituitary • Adrenal • Gonads
Pituitary Gland • Known as the master gland • Produces hormones that regulate growth • Gonadotropic hormones (GnRH) • Influence gonad functioning. • _____________________________________________ • Luteinizing hormone(LH) • ________________________________________ • Affects overall growth and shaping of the skeleton.
Gonads • Ovaries • Secrete estrogens • Stimulate development of: • Sexual organs • Female secondary sexual characteristics such as growth of pubic hair, breasts, and distribution of fat. • Progesterone • Produced when egg is released • Prepares uterus for pregnancy and for maintaining pregnancy. • Commonly found in birth control pills.
Gonads • Testes • Under the stimulation of LH from the pituitary, the testes in the male begin the production of testosterone. • Responsible for development of male sex organs. • Penis • Scrotum • Prostate gland • Also responsible for secondary male sexual characteristics. • Muscularity • Voice change • Face and body hair
Menstruation • Menarche- onset of menstruation • Average age 12-13 years • Ranges have been noted from 9-18 years • Average age in 1905 __________________________ • Usually does not occur until maximum growth rates in height and weight have been achieved. • Varies in length from 20-40 days with 28 as an average cycle. • Time of ovulation about 14 days before the onset of the next menstrual period.
Growth in Height and Weight • A growth spurt in height begins in early adolescence, accompanied by an increase in weight and body proportion. • Girls start to physically mature earlier and stop growing earlier. • ___________________________________________.
Eating Disorders • _______________________ • Life threatening emotional disorder characterize by an obsession of being slender. • Excessive loss of body weight(15% below optimal level) • Excessive weight loss measures(excessive exercise, caloric restriction, use of laxatives/diuretics, purging) • Life Threatening • VIDEO on Anorexia
Eating Disorders • ____________________ • Characterize by compulsive and rapid consumption of large quantities of high calorie food followed by efforts to eliminate the food. • Binge purge cycle • Normal body appearance • Can cause digestive damage.