CHAPTER 5Teaching Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders By Dawn M. Oliver and Adam Hertz
EBD IS CHARACTERIZED BY TWO GENERAL BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS: ** If the following behaviors interfere with academic or social functioning, they could describe a student with EBD. Externalizing Behaviors- aggression, hitting, lack of attention, and impulsivity Internalizing Behaviors-shyness, withdrawing from others, pervasive depression, anxiety, fears or phobias
Definition and Characteristics of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Consistently displays emotions or behavior considerably outside the norm under normal circumstances such as: • Inability to develop interpersonal relationships • Depression • Aggression • Withdrawal • Severe attention sustainability • Developing extreme fear or physical symptoms from school or personal problems. NOTE:Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder, and other mood disorders are included. This definition was derived as a blend of the Federal Definition and textbook definition
TYPES OF EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERS • Conduct Disorders/Aggression • Hyperactivity • Socialized Aggression • Immaturity • Depression • Anxiety-Withdrawal
CONDUCT DISORDERS/AGGRESSION Characteristics include: • Hitting • Fighting • throwing objects • temper tantrums • destruction or property • bullying and physical cruelty to others and animals • lying and conning
HYPERACTIVITY Characteristics include: Being tense or unable to relax Run or climb excessively difficulty being quiet inability to sit still Notice: Many students dislike sitting still and remaining quiet and this alone does not mean they have a hyperactivity disorder. **Students may also exhibit attention problems, depression, anxiety, and learning disabilities along with hyperactivity.
SOCIALIZED AGGRESSION Students who engage in routine anti-social behavior such as: • Violence • Stealing • Harassing Others • Damaging Property • Socialized aggression is often associated with group behavior involving other students and/or gangs.
IMMATURITY Characteristics Include: • Generally lack perseverance • Failure to finish tasks • Short attention span • Poor concentration • Frequent daydreaming or consistent preoccupation • Students seem overly dependent on parents or guardians • Often need constant prodding from instructors to participate • Have difficulty taking on responsibilities in a group setting.
DEPRESSION Depression is often characterized by: • Acting sad, lonely and apathetic • Low self-esteem • Frequent absence • Talking of suicide • Self-destructive behavior (ex. Cutting, eating disorders more commonly in girls after puberty) • Prepubescent students of both sexes are equally likely to be depressed • Depression is especially serious because it often leads to suicide
ANXIETY/WITHDRAWAL ANXIETY: Excessive worrying, fearfulness or concern when there is little reason for such feelings WITHDRAWAL: A behavior common with either anxiety or depression where students withdraw from others. • They often prefer solitary activities • They are sometimes timid or bashful, and often become loners among their peers
IDENTIFYING STUDENTS with EBD Factors that may contribute to assessment of a child as having EBD: • Behavior-Age Discrepancy: behavior problems are unusual for a student of their age • Frequency of Occurrence: under stress all people can exhibit signs of emotional or behavioral disorders. To be diagnosed, the signs exhibited should occur regularly and for a long period of time under normal circumstances
IDENTIFYING STUDENTS with EBD CONT… • Inner Suffering: signs include low self-esteem, less interaction with others, appearance of sadness or loneliness, or apathy • Harm to Others: Intentional harm to others or animals • Lack of Self Satisfaction: students who show an inability to be satisfied with themselves or their achievements
ACCOMMODATING STUDENTS with EBD • Keep classroom clean, uncluttered, organized, well lit, and maintain an appropriate noise level • Establishing positive relationships: trust, respect, care and empathy are especially important to allow emotionally or behaviorally disturbed children feel safe, accepted, and welcome so that they can have a better emotional environment for learning • Providing Opportunities for Success: Adapting and modifying instruction to fit students’ needs or giving students opportunities to acquire academic and social skills through group learning.
ADAPTING INSTRUCTION • Because dropout rates are highest among EBD students (approx. 50%) compared to students with other disabilities it is crucial that educators adapt instruction for these students. • The WHY, WHY, HOW system: explain why students are studying a topic, why they do an assignment, and how their learning is contributed to their successes. • Examples: 1.provide instruction that gives all students a chance to succeed, 2. provide opportunities for academic and social learning, 3. use a variety of materials (commercially or individually created)
Other Programs To Assist Students With EBD • School-Based Wraparound • In response to the failure of adequate support from schools, mental health agencies, and juvenile justice (that operate independently of one another) • These programs provide coordinating services to families, students, and teachers of students with EBD to promote positive behavior and reduce risk factors • Using the Life-Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) - Provide students with coping methods
Tips For Teachers • Listen • Establish set rules and consequences • Never retaliate by embarrassing or belittling a student • Recognize good behavior or work • Provide praise • Use humor in the classroom www.behavioradvisor.com/12022.html • Most of these are common sense and apply to all students!
RESOLVING CONFLICTS and PROMOTING SELF-CONTROL Conflicts are inevitable no matter what grade level you teach, but here are some strategies you can use to help resolve conflicts and promote self-control in the classroom: • GROUP WORK SOLUTIONS: compromising, sharing, taking turns, chance • COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES: apologizing, sending an I-message, active listening, self-talk • DIFFUSING A POTENTIAL VOLATILE CONFLICT: Distracting/postponing, humor or exaggerating, abandoning, seeking assistance
PREVENTING BULLYING and TEASING of STUDENTS WITH EBD • “25% OF TEACHERS DO NOT PERCEIVE BULLYING AS WRONG AND THEREFORE RARELY INTERVENE.” (Vaughn, p. 135) • Physical bullying is most common in middle schools • Verbal abuse remains consistent in all grades • Most students feel schools do little to respond to bullying
SCENARIO Refer to picture on page 135: • Devon: “You can’t use any of my glitter, because your glasses are stupid” • Haley: “I like my glasses, my mom gave me these” (reaches for glitter anyway) • Devon: “I told you not to touch my glitter!” (and grabs glitter back from Haley) • Haley: “Mrs. Brown!” Assuming Mrs. Brown witnessed this interchange, and knows Devon exhibits behaviors associated with depression or aggression; and Haley exhibits behaviors associated with immaturity, How could Mrs. Brown intervene? (Refer to p. 135 for possible strategies)
QUESTION: • The dropout rate for students with emotional and behavior disorders is approximately: • 13 % • 20 % • 35 % • 50 % correct answer Question by Adam Pg. 123
QUESTION: • Students with diagnosable Hyperactivity disorder are best described as: • Exhibiting restless, overactive behavior, which can cause attention problems, and learning impairment-correct answer • Dislike sitting still and remaining quiet, and are often driven to cause disturbances in class • Constantly acting out, doing things like climbing, hitting, talking with seemingly no control over their actions • All of the above Question from both of us
QUESTION: • Externalizing behaviors exhibited by EBD students can include the following except: • Acting out • Withdrawal – correct answer • Lack of attention • Aggression • Impulsivity Question by Dawn