TIME STUDY Prof.Dr.Yasemin Claire ERENSAL
Time Study Time Study is a method used to determine the time required by a qualified person working at a normal pace to do a specified task.
The Concept of a Labor Standard • An average experienced operator • Working with good skill and effort • Using a predetermined and documented method • To complete an operation • At an acceptable quality level • The standard represents the expected time for... • The standard does not include rework, repair, • scrap, repeated iteration of work, or any activity not directly related to task completion the “first time through.”
Some Uses for Standards • Determine total labor cost of the product • Determine the size of the work force • Assess quantity of production machinery and • equipment required • Determine overall “throughput” time • Assist in development of production schedules • Set production goals and assess performance • Determine pay policies • Assess improvement possibilities • Check efficiency of the individual/organization
Work Measurement Program Generally before a work measurement program is developed, employees must be convinced it has a need and will produce desirable results.
Time Study • Definition: Time study is used to determine the time required by a qualified well trained person working at a normal pace to perform a specified task. Time Study results in a Time Standard. • Standard includes • standardized method • normal pace • time standard includes considerations of personal time, rest to overcome fatigue and time for unavoidable delays
Time Studies • Labor standards are based on observing worker doing task • Observe only a sample of work • Use average time & pace &allowances in order to set standard • Disadvantages • Requires a trained & experienced analyst • Standard cannot be set before task is performed
Which jobs are suitable for Time Study ? • Job performed by a single worker in a fixed location • Job involves repetitive short cycles • Job expected to continue unchanged for a long period • Job produces large quantities of output • Resulting time standard must be very accurate
Is also known as: Stopwatch Time Study • Pioneered by Fredrich W. Taylor around 1880. • Several types employed: • Snapback: in one hundredths of a minute • Continuous: in one hundredths of a minute • Three watches: continuous watches • Digital: in one thousandths of a minute • TMU (Time-measured units): in one hundred thousandths of an hour • Computer: in one thousandths of a minute
Equipment • Stopwatch • Decimal minute watch – 100 divisions (.01 minute) • Provides continuousorsnapback timing • Electronic watch – accuracy of .001 second (600 times more accurate) • Provides bothcontinuousand snapback timing • Computer Assisted Electronic Stopwatch
Equipment (con’t) • Video cameras • Time study board • Time study forms (TP) • Time study Software • Training equipment
Daywork Work in which pay is based on time rather than performance.
“Fair Days’ Work” Concept The amount of work which is expected daily from an employee. May be established solely by management, or through mutual agreement with employees or a bargaining entity. It is the expected attainment. • In some companies, a Fair Day’s Work is the performance of an operator who effectively follows the specified method.
Basic Equipment 1) Stop watch - electronic, note: decimal minute as opposed to seconds, two modes: snap (fly) back - resets to zero on each press, continuous - the time still increments, (analog: more costly, breakdown, less accurate - time lost on mechanical snap back) 2) Time study board - holding watch and necessary time study forms, L and R-handed boards 3) Time study forms – a)special form for recording times in a certain way b) also a form to analyze and summarize times back in the Office R = rating W = watch time OT = observed time NT = normal time
Time Study types • May use various stopwatches – read in decimal minutes (except TMU) • Continuous time study – short-duration jobs • Long-cycle time study – long jobs (31 minutes or more), 8 hour studies (determine poor performance), or when work elements out-of-sequence
Components of a Labor Standard Observed “Watch” Time Normal Time Allowances
Observed Time (“Watch Time”) The observed and recorded time, as noted from a timing device, for a worker to perform a defined single element of an operation.
Normal Time Observed time (“Watch Time”), adjusted by a performance rating to obtain the time required by an average qualified worker to perform a single element of an operation while working at a normal pace.
Allowance A percentage by which Normal Time is increased in calculation of the labor standard. It usually includes minor unavoidable delays and required personal activities. It may also include some provision for fatigue.
Standard Time Normal Time adjusted by an allowance factor to obtain the time required by an average qualified worker to perform a single element of an operation while working at a normal pace, and considering all normal job delays and personal needs.
Typical Allowance - “PF & D” Personal Fatigue Delay
Personal Allowance An allowance in the labor standard to provide time for the personal needs of a worker during the workday.
Fatigue Allowance Time included in the labor standard calculation to allow for the effect of personal bodily fatigue in the performance of work.
Delay Allowance A time allowance in the labor standard which allows for contingencies and minor delays beyond the control of the operator.
Unavoidable Delay A time delay which is outside the control or responsibility of the worker.
Avoidable Delay A time delay not allowed in the labor standard because it is not necessary to completion of the job and caused by factors under worker control.
Making The Time Study 1. Request for time study 2. Ensure that the job is ready for time study 3. Secure and record information about the operation and operator being studied 4. Divide the operation into elements and record a complete description of the method 5. Observe and record the time taken by the operator 6. Determine the number of cycles to be timed 7. Rate the operator’s performance 8. Check to make certain that a sufficient number of cycles have been timed 9. Determine the allowances 10. Determine the standard time for the operation
Making The Time Study- Step1&2 • 1 Select job to be studied: new one, method changes, complaints, 'bottleneck' operation, incentive scheme, excessive costs, want to compare jobs.2.Select operator to be studied: qualified (has the necessary physical attributes, intelligence, education, skills and knowledge to carry out job in satisfactory manner, without undue fatigue) vs. representative (average) worker, slow workers = loose times, uneconomical for company; fast workers = tight times, unfair to workers 'above ground', no sneaking around, talk to supervisor, stand, businesslike attitude, no opinions
Making The Time Study- Step 3 3) record details about the job: sketch layout, info on operator, working conditions
Dividing the Operation into Elements and Recording a Description of the Method (Step 4) • Timing an entire operation as one single element is seldom satisfactory, and an overall study is no substitute for a time study. Breaking the operation down into short elements and timing each of them separately are essential parts of time study, for the following reasons 1. Breaking job down into short meaningful elements with clearly defined beginnings and endings makes job easier to describe 2. Standard times can be determined for each element. Total standard time is sum of element standard times 3. Allows analyst to focus on parts of job where too much and too little time are being spent 4. Operator may not work at the same tempo throughout the cycle. Each element can be performance rated
Dividing the Operation into Elements and Recording a Description of the Method (Step 4) • Three rules for dividing operation into elements • The elements should be as short in duration as can be accurately timed • Handling time should be separated from machine time • Constant elements should be separated from variable elements (the term constant refers to those elements that are independent of the size, weight, length and shape of the workpiece)
Dividing the Operation into Elements and Recording a Description of the Method (Step 4) • Break down into elements (for convenience of analyst, better ratings) using breakpoints, sight and sound, relatively fine but not too small (>.04 min), types (separate within each group): a1) repetitive element: occurs every cycle (sequence of activities for one unit of production) a2) occasional element: not every cycle, at irregular intervals a3) foreign element: not necessary part of job b1) machine element: performed by machine, time so determined b2) manual element: performed by worker c) constant vs. variable: depends on process, leads to standard data
Dividing the Operation into Elements and Recording a Description of the Method (Step 4) Breakpoint A point in a work cycle readily distinguished by sight or sound which is selected as the boundary between two elements in time study.
Dividing the Operation into Elements and Recording a Description of the Method (Step 4) Frequency The recurrence of a work element. If the element occurs once per cycle, the frequency is 1:1. As an example, if an element is done once every six pieces, then the frequency is 1:6, and the observed time must be divided by six when the study is summarized.
Dividing the Operation into Elements and Recording a Description of the Method (Step 4) Irregular (“Foreign”) Elements An element with a random, usually unpredictable, frequency of occurrence, not part of a normal method.
Dividing the Operation into Elements and Recording a Description of the Method (Step 4) Irregular Elements (Method Deviations) • Fumbles Part requires more work than usual • Sticks in die • Has to be tapped into fixture • Excessive burrs • Difficulty in fitting Part requires less work than usual • No burrs • Unusually good fit
Dividing the Operation into Elements and Recording a Description of the Method (Step 4) Irregular Elements(Interruptions, Stoppages) Operator responsible • Blows nose • Wipes perspiration • Talks to others Operator not responsible • Interference by others • Tool breakage • Power failure • Parts shortage
Dividing the Operation into Elements and Recording a Description of the Method (Step 4) Handling Irregular Elements • Discard observations with avoidable or unallowed delays. • Include observation times with allowable delays in element averages. • Subtract the element average time from the observed time containing the delay and prorate the delay time over an estimated quantity (frequency of occurrence).
Making The Time Study- Recording the Data (Timing) Step 5 Information is generally gathered by observing an operator directly or on video tape using a stopwatch • Continuous Timing: starts the watch at the beginning of the first element and permits it to run continuously during the period of the study. Observer reading of the watch at the end of element. Timing is later determined by subtraction. • Repetitive (Snap-back) Timing: With repetitive or snap-back timing, hands of watch are snapped back to zero at the end of each element. Provides direct time for each element.
Making The Time Study- Recording the Data (Timing) Step 5 Continuous Study A stopwatch technique in which the watch runs continuously throughout the study and readings are made accumulatively at the end of each element.
Making The Time Study- Recording the Data (Timing) Step 5 continuous timing stopwatch runs continuously, read incremented time at each stop, watch is never reset, individual element times are obtained by successive subtraction after study is completed Note: 1) don't record decimal point 2) record only two digits, 105=05, except if long element covering several minutes
Figure 9-7 Continuous Study
Making The Time Study- Recording the Data (Timing) Step 5 Continuous Study
Making The Time Study- Recording the Data (Timing) Step 5 Continuous Study-Advantages • Presents a complete record for the entire observation period • All delays and foreign elements are recorded • Better adapted to record short element times • Clerical work required
Making The Time Study- Recording the Data (Timing) Step 5 Snapback Study A stopwatch technique where a time value is read and recorded at each breakpoint and the watch is instantaneously reset to zero to time the next element.
Making The Time Study- Recording the Data (Timing) Step 5 snap-back timing the watch is read at the breakpoint as it is reset, next element increments from zero, thus the exact elemental time is always read directly from the watch Note: 1) record only OT