Phases of Hellenic (Greek) Civilization • Neolithic Culture (3000-1000 BCE) • Cycladic • Bronze Age (2000 -1200 BCE) • Minoan and Mycenaean • Heroic Age (1200 – 750 BCE) • Age of Homer • Archaic Age (750 – 480 BCE) • Classical Age (480 – 323 BCE) • Golden Age (480 – 430 BCE)
The Aegean Sea: Homer’s Wine Dark Sea The Mediterranean: Rome’s Mare Nostrum
Naxos Syros Paros: marble quarries
Cycladic Cultures3000-1000 bce • Stepping stones across the Aegean, the Cycladic islands were early settlement sites for migrants who developed a significant culture centuries before the emergence of the civilizations of Crete and Mycenae. • Cycladites developed shipping and traded with mainland Greece, the coast of Asia Minor and the western Mediterranean, from the Neolithic period. • Olive production helped in self-sufficiency.
CycladicTombs They buried their dead in box -shaped tombs of a trapezoidal shape, in circular tombs, and in chambers carved on the rock. Top: Cist grave of the Gotta-Pelos culture.Middle: Two-storeyed grave of the Keros-Syros culture.Bottom: Corbelled grave of the Keros-Syros culture
Abstraction Cycladic Influence on Modern Art Amedeo Modigliani Constantin Brancusi
PREPALATIAL PERIOD (2600-1900 B.C.) • Development of a glorious civilization fostered by: • Geographic location • Fertile ground • Long periods of peace • The pre-Palatial period is characterized by: • Extensive use of copper • Growth in fishing, farming and shipping activities • Tin trade • Improvement of construction techniques • Use of precious stones, elephant bone and gold: the various seals from that period are beautiful works of art.
Minoan symbols Labrys Bull Snake Goddess
Bull-Jumping Gold ring with a depiction of a bull-jumping scene from Phourni. Before 2000 BC.
Gold ring with a depiction of the goddess with a griffin from Phourni. Before 2000 BC
PALOPALATIAL PERIOD (1900-1700 B.C.) • 1900 BCE: the first palaces were built in Crete: Knossos, Malia and Kato Zakros. • The settlements around the palaces had organized watering, sewage and street systems. • Economy was based on agriculture and thrived on trade: finds from Crete have been located in Egypt and Cyprus. • 1700 BCE: a strong earthquake destroyed most of the palaces.
Knossos Reconstruction of palace at Knossos by archeologist, Sir Arthur Evans
NEOPALATIAL PERIOD (1700- 1450 B.C.E.) • The palaces were restored and the Neo-Palatial Period, the thriving years of the Minoan civilization, was inaugurated. • The palace was the center of the economic, social and religious life • The class of merchants, manufacturers and priests commanded respect, second only to the King • King was worshipped as a High Priest, along with the Goddess of Fertility. • Women played a prominent role in the Minoan civilization.
Bulls Ca. 1200 bce Ca. 1500-1450 bce Ca. 16th c. bce Ca. 1500 bce