Typology of the Negation in Welsh ICCS 2003 Dydd Iau 28ydd Awst 2003

# Typology of the Negation in Welsh ICCS 2003 Dydd Iau 28ydd Awst 2003

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## Typology of the Negation in Welsh ICCS 2003 Dydd Iau 28ydd Awst 2003

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1. Typology of the Negation in WelshICCS 2003 Dydd Iau 28ydd Awst 2003 Johannes Heinecke Lannion, Brittanny, France johannes(dot)heinecke(at)wanadoo(dot)fr

2. (Semantic) Negation • Negation is not only a typical negation morpheme but each inversion of the truth value of the meaning of the utterance • Predicate logics notation • predicate(argument, argument, ...) • predicate(argument, predicate2(arguments)) • Example: • Gwelodd Ioan y dyn yn y siop e = see(Ioan, man) & in(e, shop) & reltime(e, past) e = see(Ioan, man) & in(man, shop) & reltime(e, past)

3. Types of Negation • Sentential Negation vs Constituent Negation • \$x: J(x) Ù H(x)  not(J(x) Ù H(x)) John is happy  not(John is happy) = it is not that John is happy = John is nothappy • \$x: J(x) Ù H(x)  J(x) Ù not(H(x)) John is happy  John is unhappy

4. Types of Negation (II) • Ramat 1994 • John does not like to work. not(like(John, working)) (Sentential Negation) • John does not like beer at lunch e = like(John, beer) Ù not(at(e, lunch)) (Constituent Negation)

5. Negation Markers: Particles • Unmodified, syntactically fixed Elements,or encompassing particles • он не играем “he does not play”not(play(he)) • не игра „do not play“ command(not(play(hearer))) • он не дурак „he is no idiot“ not(idiot(he)) • он не молод „he is not young“ not(young(he)) • он не в комнате „he is not in the room“ not(in(he, room)) • Dydy hi ddim yn braf. N'eo ket brav. „it [the wheather) is not nice“ not(nice(x) Ù weather(x))

6. Negation Markers: (Bound) Morphemes • Turkish Negation Suffix me/ma • çocuklar uyudular çocuklar uyumadılar • sleep(children)  not(sleep(children)) • Privative prefixes • gesund ungesund • iach  afiach • trefn  anhrefn (more later)

7. Negation Markers: Negation Verbs • Auxiliaries which bear the semantic value “negative” • luen  en lue read(speaker)  not(read(speaker)) • luetet lue read(hearer)  not(read(hearer)) • Welsh: peidio • Paid (â) siarad lol! command(not(waffle(hearer))) • Mae‘n rhaid i ti beidio (â) mynd ymlaen fel ’na necessity(not(continue)) (more later)

8. Scope • Negation Elements have different scopes • I must drink water obligation(speaker, drink(speaker, water)) • I must not drink beer Negation of must obligation(speaker, not(drink(speaker, beer))) Negation of the argument of the obligation • Mae'n rhaid i fi yfed dŵr obligation(speaker, drink(speaker, water)) • Does dim rhaid i fi yfed cwrw. Negation of bod yn rhaid not(obligation(speaker, drink(speaker, beer)))  Negation of the obligation • For argument negation we need peidio: • Mae'n rhaid i fi peidio ag yfed cwrw. • obligation(speaker, not(drink(speaker, beer)))

9. Quantification/Double Negation • Quantifiers open new positions for negation • arrive(John) John arrives • arrive(not(John)) It is not John who arrives • not(arrive(John)) John does not arrive • child: sing(child) all children are singing • not(child): sing(child) not all children are singing • child: not(sing(child) no child is singing • x Ùnot(child(x)): sing(x) all no-children are singing • Double Negation: In logics: two negations = affirmation • not(not(P)) = P

10. Welsh Negation • Negation+Time • Q: Welaist ti Ioan ddoe? A: Naddo Q: question(e)  e = see(hearer, Ioan)  reltime(e, past)) A: (not(e)  reltime(past, e) • Verb/Auxiliary repetition • Q: Ddaw hi 'fory? A: Na ddaw Q: question(e)  e = come(hearer)  reltime(e, future)) A: (not(f = come(speaker))  reltime(future, f) • Q: Weli di Mari? A: Na wnaf Q: question(e)  e = see(hearer, Mari)  reltime(e, future)) A: (not(f = make(speaker))  reltime(future, f) • Q: Wyt ti'n cysgu? A: Nac ydw Q: question(e)  e = sleep(hearer) A: (not(doing(speaker))

11. Scope • Syntactically similar constructions vary in scope • write(children, letter) Mae 'r plant yn sgwennu llythyr • not(write(children, letter)) (Sentential Negation) Dydy'r plant ddim yn sgwennu llythyr • write(not(children), letter) (Constituent Negation) Dim y plant sy 'n sgwennu llythyr • write(children, not(letter)) (Constituent Negation) Dim llythyr y mae'r plant yn eisgwennu

12. Prepositional Negation • Negation changes the case of the patient • buy(he, thebook) Mi brynodd o'r llyfr • not(buy(he, thebook)) Phrynodd o ddim o'r llyfr • see(I, he) Mi welais i o • not(see(I, he)) Welais i ddim ohono fo (> Welais i mohono) •  J‘ai pas bu de vin not(drink(speaker, some(wine)) • j‘ai bu du vin • на остановке нет автобуса not(located_at(bus, busstop)) •  автобусна остановке

13. Negative Temporal Grammemes • Negation by anteriority marker • Mae'r plant wedi bwyta'r mefus e=eat(children, strawberries)  reltime(e, anterior(now)) • Dydy'r plant ddim wedi bwyta'r mefus e=not(eat(children, strawberries))  reltime(e, anterior(now)) • Mae'r plant heb fwyta ('r mefus) e=not(eat(children, strawberries))  reltime(e, anterior(now))

14. Real Double Negation • Cases, where negations neutralise mutually • Dydy'r plant ddim heb fwyta not(not(eat(children, something))) = eat(children, something)  • Does neb yn peidio ag ysmygu not \$x: not(smoke(x)) = x: smoke(x) • Dydy hwn ddim yn anfantais not(not(advantage))

15. Quantification • Affirmative: • Cyrhaeddodd • Canodd y plant i gyd • Negated: • not(arrive(John)) Chyrhaeddodd Ioan ddim • arrive(not(John)) Nid Ioan a gyrhaeddodd • not(child): sing(child) Nid y plant i gyd a ganodd • child: not(sing(child) Chanodd y plant i gyd ddim • x Ùnot(child(x)): sing(x) ?Ganodd y di-blant

16. Quantification II • All-Quantifier • write(all, letter) Mae pawb yn sgwennu llythyr • not(write(all, letter)) Does neb yn sgwennu llythyr • write(not(all), letter) Dydy pawb ddim [wrthi] yn ysgrifennu llythyr • write(all, not(letter)) Dydy pawb ddim yn sgwennu llythyr

17. Quantification III • “not everybody wrote a letter“ • e = write(not(all), letter)  reltime(e, anterior(now)) • Nid ysgrifenodd pawb lythyr • Ni fu pawb [wrthi] yn ysgrifennu llythyr • Ni fu i bawb ysgrifennu llythyr • Ni ddarfu i bawb ysgrifennu llythyr • [Ni] Ddaru pawb ddim 'sgrifennu llythyr • [Ni] wnaeth pawb ddim 'sgrifennu llythyr • “Not everybody has written a letter.“ • e = write(not(all), letter)  reltime(e, anterior(now)) • Nid yw pawb wedi ysgrifennu llythyr written form • Dydy pawb ddim wedi 'sgrifennu llythyr written forms

18. The Finnish Way: Negation Verb • peidio â • paid! command(not(do(hearer))) • peidiwch â chyffwrdd! command(not(touch(hearer, it))) • dywedais wrtho am beidio â mynd say(speaker, he, f)  f = command(not(go(he))) • gwadu (relativated truth value) • Mi wadod o ei fod wedi gweld Mair neithiwr • say(he, not(x))  (x = (p = see(he, Mair)  time(p, yesternight)) • methu • Mi fethodd o orffen ei waith not(able(he, x))  (x = finish(he, work)) • cf. gwrthod, pallu

19. NEG E Time NEG E Time To continue with: erioed and byth • Do they express the direction of the neagtional scope? • Ni welais i erioed neb fel Gwyn • I have never met somebody like Gwyn • Ni ddaeth o byth yn ôl

20. Lexical Negation: P(x)not(P(x)) • Derivating • trefn  ditrefn Order  chaotic • calondigalon Heart  sad • diolchdiddiolch thank  ungrateful • dealldiddeall understand  dumb • Simple Negation • iach afiach healthy  disgusting • mantaisanfantais advantage  disadvantage • iawnaniawn correct  wrong • trefnanhrefn order  anarchy • cofioanghofio remember  forget • cytunoanghytuno agee  disagree • cloffdisgloff lame  not lame • mawrnemor (< nemawr) big  hardly anything

21. References Borsley, Robert D. und Jones, Bob Morris: 2000. „The syntax of Welsh negation“. Transactions of the Philological Society. 98-1: 15-47. Dahl, Östen: 1979. „Typologie of sentence negation“. Linguistics. 17-1: 79-106. Dahl, Östen: 1993. „Negation“. Syntax. Hrsg. v. Joachim Jacobs, Joachim, Arnim von Stechow, Arnim, Wolfgang Sternefeld und Theo Vennemann. Berlin. Mouton de Gruyter. 914-923. Heinecke, Johannes: 1999. Temporal Deixis in Welsh and Breton. Heidelberg. Winter. (Anglistische Forschungen 272). Jones, Morris: 1970. „The items ‘byth’ and ‘erioed’“. Studia Celtica. 7: 93-119. Jones, Robert M.: 1966. „Tympau'r Modd Mynegol“. Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies. 22-I: 1-9. Klima, Edward L.: 1964. „Negation in English“. The Structure of Language: Readings in the Philosophy of Language Hrsg. v. Jerry A. Fodor und Jerrold Jacob Katz. Englewood Cliffs. Prentice Hall. 246-323. McCawley, James D.: 1981. Everything that linguists have always wanted to know about logic, but were ashamed to ask. Chicago. University of Chicago Press. 2nd edition. Payne, John R.: 1985. „Negation“. Language Typology and Syntactic Description. Hrsg. v. Timothy Shopen. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. 197-242. Ramat, Paolo: 1994. „Negation“. The Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Hrsg. v. Ronald E. Asher. Oxford. Pergamon Press. 2769-2774. Reichenbach, Hans: 1940. Elements of Symbolic Logic. New York. MacMillan, The Free Press.