data security data administration and database administration n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Data Security, Data Administration and Database Administration PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Data Security, Data Administration and Database Administration

Data Security, Data Administration and Database Administration

161 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Data Security, Data Administration and Database Administration

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Data Security, Data Administration and Database Administration University of California, Berkeley School of Information IS 257: Database Management

  2. Midterm Project Report Requirements Review Database Administration: Security Database Administration: Disasters, Backup and Recovery Database Administration: Roles Lecture Outline

  3. Midterm Project Report Requirements Review Database Administration: Security Database Administration: Disasters, Backup and Recovery Database Administration: Roles Lecture Outline

  4. Midterm Project Requirements • See WWW site: • • Report on personal/group database including: • Expanded and Updated Database description and purpose • Updated Data Dictionary • Updated Relationships Diagram • Plans or prototype examples for interface applications using the database

  5. Midterm Project Report Requirements Review Database Administration: Data Integrity and Security Database Administration: Disasters, Backup and Recovery Database Administration: Roles Lecture Outline

  6. Data Integrity • Intrarecord integrity (enforcing constraints on contents of fields, etc.) • Referential Integrity (enforcing the validity of references between records in the database) • Concurrency control (ensuring the validity of database updates in a shared multiuser environment)

  7. Integrity Constraints (review) • The constraints we wish to impose in order to protect the database from becoming inconsistent. • Five types • Required data • attribute domain constraints • entity integrity • referential integrity • enterprise constraints

  8. Referential Integrity • Ensures that dependent relationships in the data are maintained. In Oracle, for example: • CREATE TABLE table-name ( attr1 attr-type PRIMARY KEY, attr2 attr-type NOT NULL, …, attrM attr-type REFERENCES owner.tablename(attrname) ON DELETE CASCADE, …

  9. Concurrency Control • The goal is to support access by multiple users to the same data, at the same time • It must assure that the transactions are serializable and that they are isolated • It is intended to handle several problems in an uncontrolled system • Specifically: • Lost updates • Inconsistent data states during access • Uncompleted (or committed) changes to data

  10. Concurrency Control: Locking • Locking levels • Database • Table • Block or page • Record • Field • Types • Shared (S locks) • Exclusive (X locks)

  11. Transaction Control in ORACLE • Transactions are sequences of SQL statements that ORACLE treats as a unit • From the user’s point of view a private copy of the database is created for the duration of the transaction • Transactions are started with SET TRANSACTION, followed by the SQL statements • Any changes made by the SQL are made permanent by COMMIT • Part or all of a transaction can be undone using ROLLBACK

  12. Transactions in ORACLE • COMMIT; (I.e., confirm previous transaction) • SET TRANSACTION READ ONLY; • SELECT NAME, ADDRESS FROM WORKERS; • SELECT MANAGER, ADDRESS FROM PLACES; • COMMIT; • Freezes the data for the user in both tables before either select retrieves any rows, so that changes that occur concurrently will not show up • Commits before and after ensure any uncompleted transactions are finish, and then release the frozen data when done

  13. Transactions in ORACLE • Savepoints are places in a transaction that you may ROLLBACK to (called checkpoints in other DBMS) • SET TRANACTION…; • SAVEPOINT ALPHA; • SQL STATEMENTS… • IF (CONDITION) THEN ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT ALPHA; • SAVEPOINT BETA; • SQL STATEMENTS… • IF …; • COMMIT;

  14. Security and Integrity Functions in Database Administration • Data Integrity • Security Management • Backup and Recovery

  15. Database Security • Views or restricted subschemas • Authorization rules to identify users and the actions they can perform • User-defined procedures (with rule systems or triggers) to define additional constraints or limitations in using the database • Encryption to encode sensitive data • Authentication schemes to positively identify a person attempting to gain access to the database

  16. Views • A subset of the database presented to some set of users • SQL: CREATE VIEW viewname AS SELECT field1, field2, field3,…, FROM table1, table2 WHERE <where clause>; • Note: “queries” in Access function as views

  17. Restricted Views • Main relation has the form: U = unclassified : S = Secret : TS = Top Secret

  18. Restricted Views S-view of the data U-view of the data

  19. Authorization Rules • Most current DBMS permit the DBA to define “access permissions” on a table by table basis (at least) using the GRANT and REVOKE SQL commands • Some systems permit finer grained authorization (most use GRANT and REVOKE on variant views

  20. Midterm Project Report Requirements Review Database Administration: Security Database Administration: Disasters, Backup and Recovery Database Administration: Roles and Functions Lecture Outline

  21. Database Backup and Recovery • Backup • Journaling (audit trail) • Checkpoint facility • Recovery manager

  22. Backup and Offsite Backup Found on the Web… This is typical of services that provide offsite backup for computers or DP centers

  23. Disaster Recovery Planning Risk Analysis Recovery Strategies Plan Maintenance Testing and Training Budget & Implement Procedures Development From Toigo “Disaster Recovery Planning”

  24. La Crosse, Wisc 2001

  25. Katrina

  26. Katrina

  27. Katrina

  28. Katrina

  29. Katrina

  30. Katrina

  31. Threats to Assets and Functions • Water • Fire • Power Failure • Mechanical breakdown or software failure • Accidental or deliberate destruction of hardware or software • By hackers, disgruntled employees, industrial saboteurs, terrorists, or others

  32. Threats • Between 1967 and 1978 fire and water damage accounted for 62% of all data processing disasters in the U.S. • The water damage was sometimes caused by fighting fires • More recently improvements in fire suppression (e.g., Halon) for DP centers has meant that water is the primary danger to DP centers

  33. Kinds of Records • Class I: VITAL • Essential, irreplaceable or necessary to recovery • Class II: IMPORTANT • Essential or important, but reproducible with difficulty or at extra expense • Class III: USEFUL • Records whose loss would be inconvenient, but which are replaceable • Class IV: NONESSENTIAL • Records which upon examination are found to be no longer necessary

  34. Offsite Storage of Data • Early offsite storage facilities were often intended to survive atomic explosions • PRISM International directory • PRISM = Professional Records and Information Services Management • • Mirror sites (Hot sites) Agility “Hotsuite”

  35. Offsite Storage Providers Iron Mountain

  36. Offsite backup providers Verio

  37. Midterm Project Report Requirements Review Database Administration: Security Database Administration: Disasters, Backup and Recovery Database Administration: Roles Lecture Outline

  38. Today • Traditional and Current Data Administration • Traditional and Current Database Administration • Review of Security, Integrity, etc.

  39. Changes in Traditional Roles • This is being driven by rapid changes in • Technology • Platforms (e.g., Micro vs. Mainframe vs. Server) • Organizational Structure • We will focus on the core functions and tasks of these roles (traditional or current)

  40. Terms and Concepts (trad) • Data Administration • Responsibility for the overall management of data resources within an organization • Database Administration • Responsibility for physical database design and technical issues in database management • These roles are often combined or overlapping in some organizations

  41. Terms and Concepts (trad) • DA • Data adminstrator - person responsible for the Data Administration function in an organization • Sometimes may be the CIO -- Chief Information Officer • DBA • Database Administrator - person responsible for the Database Administration Function

  42. Database System Life Cycle Database Planning Database Analysis Growth & Change Operation & Maintenance Database Design Database Implementation Note: this is a different version of this life cycle than discussed previously

  43. Database Planning • Development of a strategic plan for database development that supports the overall organization’s business plan • DA supports top management in development of this plan • The result of this stage is an enterprise data model

  44. Database Planning: DA & DBA functions • Develop corporate database strategy (DA) • Develop enterprise model (DA) • Develop cost/benefit models (DA) • Design database environment (DA) • Develop data administration plan (DA)

  45. Database Analysis • This is the process (discussed previously) of identifying data entities currently used by the organization, precisely defining those entities and their relationships, and documenting the results in a form that can support the follow-on design phase • Must also identify new data elements or changes to data elements that will be required in the future • The result of this phase is the Conceptual Data Model -- usually represented as an ER diagram

  46. Database Analysis: DA & DBA functions • Define and model data requirements (DA) • Define and model business rules (DA) • Define operational requirements (DA) • Maintain corporate Data Dictionary (DA)

  47. Database Design • Purpose of the design phase is the development of the logical database design that will serve the needs of the organization and the physical design implementing the logical design • In relational systems the outcome is normalized relations, and the data definition for a particular database systems (including indexes, etc.)

  48. Design 2: Physical Creation • Development of the Physical Model of the Database • data formats and types • determination of indexes, etc. • Load a prototype database and test • Determine and implement security, privacy and access controls • Determine and implement integrity constraints

  49. Database Design: DA &DBA functions • Perform logical database design (DA) • Design external models (subschemas) (DBA) • Design internal model (Physical design) (DBA) • Design integrity controls (DBA)