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Petroleum and Natural Gas. Maddie Wahlberg Elodie Cascarano Maya Bass Raina Kenigsberg. Hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbon is a molecule composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons can be known as impure or pure.
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Petroleum and Natural Gas Maddie Wahlberg ElodieCascarano Maya Bass RainaKenigsberg
Hydrocarbon • Hydrocarbon is a molecule composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Hydrocarbons can be known as impure or pure. • Impure hydrocarbons contain not only hydrogen and carbon atoms but also nitrogen or sulfur. While pure hydrocarbons are only composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms. • The arrangement and number of their bonds and their atoms create many different varieties of hydrocarbons. • There are significant amounts of energy that can be released when burned in the bonds of hydrocarbons.
Fossil Fuels • Fossil fuels are made of decaying dead plants and animals, which are primarily hydrocarbon molecules. • Fossil fuels are not considered a renewable resource because the process of decomposition takes millions of years. • There are two main kinds of hydrocarbon fossil fuels. • Liquid fuels, known as petroleum, are one form of hydrocarbon fossil fuels. • Natural gas is the other main form of hydrocarbon fossil fuels.
Finding Oil and Natural Gas • Oil and natural gas are found in the areas of rock layers under ground. • Companies drill through the earth to the deposits deep below the surface. • In the past few decades, advancements in technology have allowed us to drill from a site up to five miles away from the source. In the past, we were forced to drill directly over the supply. • Oil and natural gas are then pumped to the surface through pipelines by oil rigs.
Extracting Oil and Natural Gas • Pressure is needed to push the fluids to the surface once the source has been located and drilling is complete. • To create the necessary pressure, natural gas can be pumped underground, below the oil so that when the gas expands, the force pushes the oil to the surface. • Another technique for creating pressure is injecting water, previously separated from the oil during the drilling process, back into the oil-bearing formation to push more oil above ground. • Steam heat is another method for creating the pressure needed.
Refining • Before hydrocarbons are put on the market, they must be refined. • In their natural form, oil and natural gas must be processed to remove impurities and make them more effective, this is refining. • There are three main methods of refining: Separation, Conversion and Combining/Upgrading. • Separation – This process heats the oil, gradually evaporating before condensing the vapor. • Conversion – This process uses chemicals to turn diesel fuel into gasoline.
Refining • Combining/Upgrading – This process mixes both processed and unprocessed products to produce gasoline with different octane ratings. • Refining creates many products from crude oil such as: • Petroleum gas – heating, cooking, making plastics • Gasoline – motor fuel • Kerosene – fuel for jet engines • Gas oil – diesel fuel and heating oil • Lubricating oil – motor oil and grease • Heavy gas – industrial fuel • Residuals – asphalt, tar, waxes
Electricity • Natural gas is burned to create steam from boiling water. This steam is then forced through impeller turbines which spin generator coils that produce electricity. • Converting oil into electricity is accomplished using three technologies: • Conventional Steam – oil is burned to heat water, creating steam that is used to create electricity • Combustion Turbine – hot exhaust gases are produced when oil is burned under pressure which spin a turbine to create electricity. • Combined-Cycle Technology – The first two methods are combined to create electricity. First the combustion turbine method is used and then the conventional steam method is used to drive a second turbine.
Environmental Concerns • Hydrocarbons have been a primary source of fuel but the environmental concerns have increased. • There are serious pollution problems in some areas due to the smoke and soot created from their combustion. • High levels of CO2are produced from hydrocarbons. This causes heat to be trapped in the atmosphere, changing the earth’s climate by raising global temperatures.
Advantages & Disadvantages Natural Gas Advantages • More environmentally friendly • Cheaper than gasoline • Safely stored and burned • Easily transported • Many natural resources still under utilized Natural Gas Disadvantages • Damaging to ecosystem • Non-renewable resource • Highly flammable • Costly transportation • Most common cause of Carbon Monoxide deaths
Advantages & Disadvantages Oil Advantages • Good Availability • Very efficient • Easily distributed • Inexpensive • Easily combustible Oil Disadvantages • Non-renewable, fast depleting • Oil spills • Difficult to recycle • Price is rising • Releases Carbon Dioxide
Top 5 Oil Reserves in the World Country(as of 2010) • Saudi Arabia • Canada • Iran • Iraq • Kuwait 14. United States Reserves(billion barrels) • 259.9 • 175.2 • 137.6 • 115.0 • 101.5 • 19.2
Top 5 Natural Gas Reserves Country (as of 2010) • Russia • Iran • Qatar • Saudi Arabia • United States Reserves (Trillion Cubic Feet) • 1680.0 • 991.6 • 891.9 • 258.5 • 237.7 Percent of World Total • 26.9% • 15.9% • 14.3% • 4.1% • 3.8%
Shale • Shale – a group of fine-grained, laminated sedimentary rocks consisting of clay-sized particles and silt. • Roughly 60% of sedimentary rock consists of shale. • Although we currently extract large amounts of fossil fuels, much remains trapped in the shale. • Drilling companies have made advances in recovering methods of the oil and natural gas trapped in the tiny pores of shale. • This discovery could one day make shale a realistic source of fuel.
Supply Concerns • Our country’s dependence on fossil fuels forces us to protect foreign sources of oil. During the Persian Gulf War, U.S. troops were sent to guard against a possible cutoff of our supply. Billions of dollars were spent in that war and many lives were lost. • The goal of the Chinese government is to develop their country to a level where every household has a car. More than the world’s total oil production would be required in order to fuel them all. If this were to happen, the prices would soar on this limited resource.
Bibliography • Wisegeek.org • Energyquest.ca.gov • Adventuresinenergy.org • Planete-energies.com • Science.howstuffworks.com • Powerscorecard.org • Merriam-webster.com • Buzzle.com • Essortment.com • Ucsusa.org • Mineralwebs.com • Instituteforenergyresearch.org • Energy4me.org • Theinnovationdiaries.com • Owni.eu • Bionomicfuel.com • Abovetopsecret.com • Elmhurst.edu