Austroads Guide to Traffic ManagementReview and Update Dr Clarissa Han(email@example.com) AITPM 2013 Victoria Forum 15 Aug
Contents • Overview of Austroads Guides and GTM • Objectives and Methods of GTM update • General Feedback • Latest Release: GTM Parts 3, 4, 5, 6 • Recommendations • Project Working Team and Contacts
Overview of Austroads Guides • Austroads Guide to Traffic Management (GTM) • Austroads Guide to Road Design (GRD) • Austroads Guide to Road Safety (GRS)
Objectives of review (2012/13) • Analyse and address comments and feedback from users • Modify omissions and errors • Improve cross—reference process amongst Austroads Guides • Minimise jurisdiction supplements • Provides most update-to-date knowledge/emerging information such as congestion management, managed motorways, network operations planning, pedestrian and cyclist aspects etc.
Methods • Users’ feedback survey (questionnaire survey) through Traffic Management Working Group • ARRB library process • ARRB literature review • Workshop discussion with jurisdiction reps • Austroads review process (3+ reviews)
General feedback • Austroads guides are well received by jurisdiction users • There is a need to promote harmonised practices amongst jurisdictions • The Austroads Guides should be reviewed more frequently, or need based • Some Parts should be reviewed annually such as Parts 1 to reflect latest updates • Cross-reference to other Parts of GTM and to GRD, GRS, GAM need to be updated • Index of topics / online publications search engine • Funding requirement
Latest release • AGTM01-09 Guide to Traffic Management Part 1: Introduction to Traffic Management • AGTM02-08 Guide to Traffic Management Part 2: Traffic Theory • AGTM03-13 Guide to Traffic Management Part 3: Traffic Studies and Analysis (2nd Ed 13) • AGTM04-09 Guide to Traffic Management Part 4: Network Management • AGTM05-08 Guide to Traffic Management Part 5: Road Management • AGTM06-13 Guide to Traffic Management Part 6: Intersections, Interchanges and Crossings (2nd Edition 2013) • AGTM07-09 Guide to Traffic Management Part 7: Traffic Management in Activity Centres • AGTM08-08 Guide to Traffic Management Part 8: Local Area Traffic Management • AGTM09-09 Guide to Traffic Management Part 9: Traffic Operations • AGTM10-09 Guide to Traffic Management Part 10: Traffic Control and Communications Devices • AGTM11-08 Guide to Traffic Management Part 11: Parking • AGTM12-09 Guide to Traffic Management Part 12: Traffic Impacts of Developments • AGTM13-09 Guide to Traffic Management Part 13: Road Environment Safety
Part 3 – Traffic Studies and Analysis • Part 3: collection and analysis of traffic data for the purpose of traffic management and traffic control within a network. It serves as a means to ensure some degree of consistency in conducting traffic studies and surveys. • Part 3 covers applications of the theory presented in Part 2 , and provides guidance on traffic analysis for uninterrupted and interrupted flow facilities and for various types of intersections. It outlines sound methods of analysis for effective traffic management, design and control.
Part 3 2nd Edition 2013 highlights • The Second Edition makes reference to the updated US Highway Capacity Manual (TRB 2010), provides an updated capacity definition and level of service criteria for general traffic in Section 3, uninterrupted flow facilities in Section 4, interrupted flow facilities in Section 5 and intersections in Section 6. • Capacity analysis, further clarify pc/h instead of vehicle per hour, sustainable headways • Level of service, Level of service is a qualitative measure for ranking operating conditions, based on factors such as speed, travel time, delay, density, freedom to manoeuvre, interruptions, comfort and convenience. • Volume-to-capacity ratio: the ratio of demand or arrival flow to capacity, and therefore can be larger than 1, representing oversaturation /LoS F
Part 3 2nd Edition 2013 • The 2nd edition also considered HCM models are calibrated for US conditions which are based on different driver behaviour compared with Australia and New Zealand such as: • larger vehicles • more hesitant driving culture resulting from: - extensive use of all-way stop control (extremely rare in Australia and New Zealand) and - lack of use of give-way (yield) control at intersections (common in Australia and New Zealand), • roundabouts being not as common and well-established in practice as in Australia and New Zealand Therefore it provides better recognition of the capacity analysis methods developed in Australia, particularly for signalised intersections, roundabouts and sign-controlled intersections rather than only following the HCM methodology in these areas.
Part 3 2nd Edition 2013 • Provides an additional Section 6.4.5 as a summary of level of service criteria using delay for unsignalised intersections, roundabouts and signalised intersections.
Part 3 2nd Edition 2013 • Provides an additional Section 3.4 for pedestrian level of service based on the latest research from both the US and New Zealand.
Part 3 2nd Edition 2013 • Add emerging traffic survey technologies in both Section 2 and an additional Appendix K, briefly describes 5 emerging (promising) technologies for reference. New guidelines on their use can be developed by Austroads when they become established technologies for practice. • New Magnetic Vehicle Sensor • Infra-red Axle Sensor • Travel time measurement by Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) • Travel time measurement by mobile phone tracking and other telematics • On-board mass monitoring
Part 3 2nd Edition 2013 • Given the huge demand of before-and-after study evaluation from jurisdiction users, this version includes an illustrative example of sample size determination for a before-and-after study in Section 2.3.4 Sample size determination.
Part 4 – Network Management • Part 4 discusses traffic management at a network level. It addresses network needs of the various categories of user, the characteristics of various types of network and describes a planning process for balancing or prioritising the competing needs of different users. • Traffic management solutions and tools used to address needs at network management level include land-use access, traffic signals, parking and lane allocation measures. These are discussed in general terms in this part, particularly in the context of the network management planning process
Part 4 updates: Network operations planning Dr Ian Espada
Part 5 – Road Management • Part 5 is concerned with traffic management on sections of road between major intersections. It provides the guidance under the four key areas of Access management, Road space allocation, Lane management and Speed limits. • It focuses on traffic management issues and treatments related to various situations and but not provide dimensions or other details for the design of treatments as these are provided in Austroads Guide to Road Design. • Road types include Freeways/Motorways/Expressways, Urban arterial roads, Urban local roads, Rural highways and Rural local roads. It considers the needs of all road users including pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, heavy vehicles and public transport.
Part 5 2013 updates • A substantial review and update of the latest practices and guidelines was completed in a broad range of road management topics such as on-road public transport, HOV lanes, cycling aspects, pedestrian crossing facilities, managed motorway initiatives and guidelines, Safe System and safe speeds, variable speed limits and etc. • All references to AU and NZ standards, reference and cross reference to Austroads GTM, GRS, GRD series are thoroughly updated as well. • 2nd edition expected to be released late 2013
Part 5 update highlights 1. Expand section on High Occupancy Vehicle lanes (HOV) Refer to: Austroads Report AP-R317/08, Best practice on improving level of service for freight vehicles, on-road public transport, HOV and emergency vehicles. - Have the potential to increase the person throughput of the lane - Can also be implemented on entry ramps of motorways to reduce delay to applicable vehicles entering the freeway. This is similar to a queue-jump lane on arterial roads. - Can be affected by illegal usage of HOV lanes. - Environmentally Friendly lanes or similar can also be considered.
Part 5 update highlights • Provide additional information on Public transport, Refer to: Victorian Department of Transport, Public Transport Guidelines for Land use and development, Austroads Report AP-R317/08, Best practice on improving level of service for freight vehicles, on-road public transport, HOV and emergency vehicles. 2008, VicRoads, SmartRoads – Connecting communities. 2011, Department of Transport (Vic), Client design requirements for accessible trams stops. • Bus routes on arterial road • Bus stops for mid-block sites • Bus stops in traffic lanes • Tram stops • Passenger shelter
Part 5 update highlights • Provide more information for cycling aspect as it is recognised as an increasingly important transport mode, refer to Austroads Report AP-G88-11, Cycling aspects of Austroads Guides, Project AP-R410-12, Cycling on Higher Speed Roads, NT1792 Cycling aspects of Austroads Guides 2013. • Cyclists on freeways/motorways • On-road bicycle lanes • Bicycle/car parking lanes • Off-road bicycle facilities
Part 5 update highlights • Add emerging information of Managed Motorways as its use is fast becoming standard practice on motorways. Refer to: Austroads 2009 Best practice for VSL, Austroads Report AP-R341/09, Freeway Design Parameters for Fully Managed Operations (Austroads 2009), MRWA 2012, Managed freeways provision guidelines, VicRoads 2012, Managed Freeways – Freeway Ramp Signals Handbook, QTMR, 2010, Guidelines for the permanent placement of variable speed limit and lane controls signs for motorways, long bridges and tunnels, QTMR, 2012, Design Guidelines for the Provision of Managed Motorway Ramp Signalling. - Lane management general rules - Good practices from jurisdictions
Part 5 update highlights • Safe System and Safe Speed • Safe Speed: speed limits complementing the road environment to manage crash impact forces to within human tolerance; and all road users complying with the speed limits. • Review speed limits for high-risk areas • Increase the adoption of lower speed limits in urban areas. • Investigate the implementation of intelligent speed assistance/adaptation (ISA) systems. • Point-to-point speed cameras, use of sanctions/penalty system to deter speeding. • Improve enforcement of motorcycle speeding, legislation for heavy vehicle speeding. • Best practices for variable speed limits Acknowledge the current research conducted in safe system projects: Austroads ST1706: National guidelines for setting speed limits at higher risk locations (2011/12-2012/13) ST1762: Towards the harmonisation of best practice speed limits (2012/13 -2013/14) TP1718: Review GRS Part 3 (scheduled 2013/14-14/15).
Part 6 – Intersections, Interchanges and Crossings • Part 6 is concerned with traffic management at all types of intersections where the various road users must join or cross another stream of traffic. • It focuses on traffic management issues and treatments related to intersections, interchanges and crossings but does not provide dimensions or other details for the design of treatments as these are provided in the Austroads Guide to Road Design: Part 4. • Traffic management at intersections may be influenced by the approaches to them, and road sections between intersections. Guidance on traffic management on road sections is provided in Part 5: Road Management.
Part 6 2nd Edition 2013 • Realignment of material related to traffic signals, primarily with information discussed in the Guide to Traffic Management Part 9: Traffic Operations • Addition of material on types of intersections, relocated from the Guide to Road Design Part 4A: Unsignalised and Signalised Intersections • Consideration of other types of intersections such as signalised roundabouts and unconventional intersection design • Additional considerations for topics such as intersections near rail level crossings and pedestrian crossings at signalised facilities.
Review of Parts 1, 2 & 13 Proposed Modifications: • Part 1: update the introduction of individual parts (e.g. Part 4 and Part 5) to reflect the latest updates to these parts of the GTM and investigate the options for developing an index of topics. • Part 2: update identified corrections and modifications, update Section 7.5 with latest Austroads research on congestion management and managed motorways, and update Commentary 6 by incorporating relevant information about average delay at unsignalised intersections from Section 8.3.3 of the Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice (GTEP) Part 2 and Appendix B of GTEP Part 5. • Part 13: update Section 1.1 with clarification of purpose, update the relevant contents regarding Safe System approach with latest research, and update the entire reference list and cross reference in the text to reflect the latest publications of the GTM, Guide to Road Design (GRD) and Guide to Road Safety (GRS).
Ongoing review • GTM Part 7 Traffic management in activity centres – major review Austroads Project NT1797 (2013/14) • GTM Part 8 Local area traffic management – major review Austroads Project NT1798 (2012/13 - 2013/14) • GTM Part 4 Transport Network Management NT1795 (2013/14)
Recommendations for future work • All future Austroads network program projects should be linked with GTM • Identify knowledge gap and provide high quality research/investigations for practitioners • Update and review major Parts annually or based on need • Implement cross-reference process • Minimise jurisdictions supplements via practice harmonisation projects • Knowledge transfer/information dissemination
ARRB GTM working team • Peter Croft • Dr Clarissa Han • Dr Ian Espada • Michael Levasseur • David Green • Dr James Luk
Contact details General feedback: ARRB library firstname.lastname@example.org ARRB AGTM co-ordinator: email@example.com Contact Austroads: firstname.lastname@example.org