Reciprocal Teaching Stefanie Burnett Tasia Chambers-Hickman Michael Kimmel
What is It? • Reciprocal Teaching is a multi-component comprehension strategy which focuses on dialogue between the teacher and students to bring meaning to the text. • Students view the teacher modeling each of the strategies, try the strategies out for themselves in a supported environment, and work independently using the strategies to comprehend text.
Theoretical Foundation Essential Theories • Zone of Proximal Development • How students’ skills and knowledge can be enhanced with guidance provided through interactions with others. • Scaffolding • Intense Scaffolding • Moderate Scaffolding • Minimum Scaffolding • Proleptic Teaching • Gradual release of responsibility for learning to the students
Research Support • Pioneering Study: Students who participated in the reciprocal teaching intervention outperformed comparison students on all measures of text comprehension and memory (Palincsar & Brown, 1984) • In comparison with traditional methods, reciprocal teaching has been found to be more effective, using both narrative and expository texts, with a wide range of students. (Alfassi, 1998)(Rosenshire & Meister, 1994) • Reciprocal teaching is more successful when it includes direct teaching of the four comprehension strategies. • A modified version of Reciprocal Teaching can be used for students with LD or ELL students. (Klinger and Vaughn, 1996)
Reciprocal Teaching Strategies • Predicting – Predicting activates prior knowledge and motivates students to continue reading the passage to determine if their predictions were correct. • Clarifying – Clarifying assures that the passage will make sense to the reader. • Questioning – Questioning allows the reader to self-test their understanding of the text and helps them to identify what is important in the story. • Summarizing – Summarizing can improve understanding and memory of what is read.
Phases of Reciprocal Teaching • Phase 1 – Teacher Demonstration • Phase 2 – Direct Instruction and Guided Practice • Phase 3 – Teacher-Student Groups • Phase 4 – Student-led Groups • Phase 5 – Students’ Independent Use of the Strategies
Overview of Five Phases for Younger Elementary Grades Phase 1: StrategyIntroduction Pre Reading Strategies Picture Walk Predictions Review Strategies Continue Incorporating Group work Introduce Individual Strategies Set Purpose Post Reading Strategies Predictions Questions Visualizing Summarizing Timeframe: 1 week per strategy Timeframe 2 wks Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase4 Phase 5 Fishbowl Cue cards Other students observe Group Students Teacher Support Group Students Reduce Support Group Students Individual Accountability Reduced Support Timeframe2 wks Timeframe 5-6 wks Timeframe 7-8 wks Timeframe Indefinitely
Implementing Reciprocal Teaching • Before Reciprocal Teaching can be used successfully by your students, they need to have been taught and had time to practice the four strategies that are used in reciprocal teaching (summarizing, questioning, predicting, clarifying). • For Primary Students: K-2 • Distribute one note card to each member of the group identifying each person's unique role: • Summarizer • Questioner • Clarifier • Predictor
Implementing Reciprocal Teaching • Have students read a few paragraphs of the assigned text selection. Encourage them to use note-taking strategies such as selective underlining or sticky-notes to help them better prepare for their role in the discussion. • At the given stopping point, the Summarizer will highlight the key ideas up to this point in the reading. • The Questioner will then pose questions about the selection: • Unclear parts • Puzzling information • Connections to other concepts already learned
Implementing Reciprocal Teaching • The Clarifier will address confusing parts and attempt to answer the questions that were just posed. • The Predictor can offer predictions about what the author will tell the group next or, if it's a literary selection, the predictor might suggest what the next events in the story will be. • The roles in the group then switch one person to the right, and the next selection is read. Students repeat the process using their new roles. This continues until the entire selection is read.
Differentiated Instruction • Reciprocal Teaching can be used for second language learners, students of varying reading skill, and for younger learners. • Pair a student with lower reading skills with one who is more advanced to work together. • Provide different levels of scaffolding for individual learners or groups.
Why Use Reciprocal Teaching? • It encourages students to think about their own thought process during reading. • It helps students learn to be actively involved and monitor their comprehension as they read. • It teaches students to ask questions during reading and helps make the text more comprehensible. • Reciprocal teaching is collaborative. • Reciprocal teaching promotes flexible thinking. • Reciprocal teaching develops the skills of summarization, clarification, questioning and predicting.
Reflection • What do you think are the strengths and weaknesses of using reciprocal teaching? • How can you implement this in your classroom? • Other thoughts/questions?
Websites and Resources Websites: • http://www.readingrockets.org/strategies/reciprocal_teaching • http://forpd.ucf.edu/strategies/stratreciprocalteaching3.html • http://www.miamisci.org/tec/ Resources: http://anthonyrdlgtcnj.weebly.com/uploads/3/0/7/4/3074616/role_of_dialogue_in_rec_tchng.pdf http://anthonyrdlgtcnj.weebly.com/uploads/3/0/7/4/3074616/rectchng_primary.pdf