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7.4 Properties of Chiral Molecules: Optical Activity PowerPoint Presentation
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7.4 Properties of Chiral Molecules: Optical Activity

7.4 Properties of Chiral Molecules: Optical Activity

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7.4 Properties of Chiral Molecules: Optical Activity

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  1. 7.4Properties of Chiral Molecules:Optical Activity

  2. Optical Activity A substance is optically active if it rotates the plane of polarized light. In order for a substance to exhibit opticalactivity, it must be chiral and one enantiomer must be present in excess of the other.

  3. Light has wave properties periodic increase and decrease in amplitude of wave

  4. Light optical activity is usually measured using light having a wavelength of 589 nm this is the wavelength of the yellow light from a sodium lamp and is called the D line of sodium

  5. Polarized light ordinary (nonpolarized) light consists of many beams vibrating in different planes plane-polarized light consists of only those beams that vibrate in the same plane

  6. Polarization of light

  7. Polarization of light Nicol prism

  8. Polarization of light Nicol prism

  9. Rotation of plane-polarized light

  10. Rotation of plane-polarized light

  11. Rotation of plane-polarized light

  12. Rotation of plane-polarized light a

  13. Specific rotation observed rotation (a) depends on the number of molecules encountered and is proportional to:path length (l), and concentration (c)

  14. 100 a cl Specific rotation observed rotation (a) depends on the number of molecules encountered and is proportional to:path length (l), and concentration (c) therefore, define specific rotation [a] as: concentration = g/100 mL length in decimeters [a] =

  15. Racemic mixture a mixture containing equal quantities of enantiomers is called a racemic mixture a racemic mixture is optically inactive(a = 0) a sample that is optically inactive can beeither an achiral substance or a racemicmixture

  16. Optical purity an optically pure substance consists exclusively of a single enantiomer enantiomeric excess = % one enantiomer – % other enantiomer % optical purity = enantiomeric excess

  17. 7.5AbsoluteandRelative Configuration

  18. Configuration Relative configuration compares the arrangement of atoms in space of one compound with those of another. Absolute configuration is the precise arrangement of atoms in space.

  19. Configuration Relative configuration compares the arrangement of atoms in space of one compound with those of another.until the 1950s, all configurations were relative Absolute configuration is the precise arrangement of atoms in space. we can now determine the absolute configuration of almost any compound

  20. CH3CHCH CH3CHCH2CH3 CH2 OH OH Relative configuration Pd No bonds are made or broken at the stereogenic centerin this experiment. Therefore, when (+)-3-buten-2-ol and (+)-2-butanol have the same sign of rotation, the arrangement of atoms in space is analogous. The twohave the same relative configuration. [a] + 33.2° [a] + 13.5°

  21. H HO H HO OH OH H H Two possibilities H2, Pd But in the absence of additional information, we can't tell which structure corresponds to(+)-3-buten-2-ol, and which one to (–)-3-buten-2-ol. H2, Pd

  22. H HO H HO OH OH H H Two possibilities H2, Pd Nor can we tell which structure corresponds to(+)-2-butanol, and which one to (–)-2-butanol. H2, Pd

  23. H HO H HO OH OH H H Absolute configurations H2, Pd [a] +33.2° [a] +13.5° H2, Pd [a] –13.5° [a] –33.2°

  24. CH3CH2CHCH2OH CH3CH2CHCH2Br CH3 CH3 Relative configuration HBr Not all compounds that have the same relativeconfiguration have the same sign of rotation. No bondsare made or broken at the stereogenic center in thereaction shown, so the relative positions of the atoms are the same. Yet the sign of rotation changes. [a] -5.8° [a] + 4.0°