Islamic Civilization Chapter Introduction Section 1 The Rise of Islam Section 2 Islamic Empires Section 3 Muslim Ways of Life Reading Review Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.
Islamic Civilization Chapter Objectives • Explain how the religion of Islam began and grew. • Discuss how Muslims spread their faith throughout the Middle East and the Mediterranean. • Summarize the achievements of the Muslim empires.
The Rise of Islam Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section discusses the life of the prophet Muhammad and the rise of the religion he founded, Islam, in the Arabian desert.
The Rise of Islam Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • The deserts, coastline, and oases of Arabia helped shape the Arab way of life. • The prophet Muhammad brought the message of Islam to the people of Arabia. • The Quran provided guidelines for Muslims’ lives and the governments of Muslim states.
The Rise of Islam Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Makkah (MAK·kuh) • Kaaba (KAH·buh) • Madinah (mah·DEE·nah) Meeting People • Bedouin (BEH·duh·wuhn) • Muhammad (moh·HAH·muhd)
The Rise of Islam Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • oasis (oh·AY·suhs) • sheikh (SHAYK) • caravan (KAR·uh·VAN) • Quran (koh·RAHN) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Use a diagram like the one on page 372 of your textbook to identify the Five Pillars of faith.
The Rise of Islam Daily Life in Early Arabia • Much of the Arabian peninsula is desert, although there are mountains in the southwest. • Oases are green areas fed by an underground water source. • Early Arabs formed into family clans and tribes that were headed by a sheikh. • The Bedouins were desert herders who traveled from oasis to oasis to water their animals. (pages 373–374)
The Rise of Islam Daily Life in Early Arabia (cont.) • Many Arabs lived in villages near oases. • Merchants who transported goods across the deserts formed caravans to protect themselves from Bedouin attacks. • Caravans are groups of traveling merchants and animals. • Trade grew, and merchants founded towns along trade routes. (pages 373–374)
The Rise of Islam Daily Life in Early Arabia (cont.) • Makkah was the largest and wealthiest trade center and is an important religious site visited by pilgrims. • In the middle of Makkah is the Kaaba, a low square building surrounded by statues of gods and goddesses. • Inside is a large stone Arabs believe came from heaven. • Arabs consider Allah the creator. (pages 373–374)
The Rise of Islam How did Makkah evolve as the largest trade city? Makkah was a crossroads for merchant traders, and it was an important holy site for Arab pilgrims.
The Rise of Islam Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet • Muhammad was accepted as a prophet to the people of Arabia. • Muhammad was dissatisfied with the ways of his town leaders and went into the hills to meditate. • There he was visited by an angel who told him to preach Islam. • Muhammad returned to Makkah and told people to worship one God, Allah. (pages 374–375)
The Rise of Islam Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet (cont.) • Muhammad also preached that all people are equal and that the rich should share their wealth with the poor. • Many poor people began accepting Muhammad’s message and became Muslims, or followers of Islam. • Wealthy people did not like Muhammad’s message, and they made life difficult for Muhammad and his followers. (pages 374–375)
The Rise of Islam Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet (cont.) • Muhammad and his followers left Makkah for Yathrib. • This journey is known as the Hijrah. (pages 374–375)
The Rise of Islam Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet (cont.) • Yathrib welcomed the Muslims and renamed their city Madinah. • Muhammad used the laws he believed he had received from God to rule the people of Madinah, creating an Islamic state, or a government that uses its political power to uphold Islam. • Muhammad built an army to defend his new government. (pages 374–375)
The Rise of Islam Muhammad: Islam’s Prophet (cont.) • The army conquered Makkah, and Muhammad returned to the holy city. • Muhammad died two years after his return. (pages 374–375)
The Rise of Islam Why did wealthy merchants and religious leaders dislike Muhammad? Muhammad’s message appealed to poor people. If poor people became dissatisfied with their leaders, they might rebel. This threatened the power of the wealthy people.
The Rise of Islam Islam’s Teachings • Islam, Judaism, and Christianity have some beliefs in common. • The Quran is the holy book of Islam. • Many moral teachings in the Quran are similar to those in the Bible. • Many rules in the Quran apply to Muslims’ daily life. (pages 377–378)
The Rise of Islam Islam’s Teachings (cont.) • The Five Pillars of Islam, or acts of worship, are to be followed by all Muslims. • The Five Pillars are belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage. • The Sunna is the name given to customs based on Muhammad’s words and deeds. • Islam’s law code is taken from the Quran and the Sunna. (pages 377–378)
The Rise of Islam What moral teachings do the Bible and the Quran share? The Quran and the Bible both demand honesty, fairness, kindness to neighbors, honoring of parents, and giving to the poor. They both also prohibit murder, lying, and stealing.
The Rise of Islam What are oases, and why were they important to Arabs? Oases are green areas in the desert fed by underground water, that supplied water for Arab herders.
The Rise of Islam Name some activities the Quran prohibits. The Quran prohibits murder, lying, gambling, stealing, eating pork, and drinking liquor.
The Rise of Islam Conclude Why do you think Muhammad’s teachings were popular with poorer people? Because Muhammad taught that goods should be shared, the poorer people realized the possibility of benefiting through charity.
The Rise of Islam Analyze How did Muhammad link religion and government? Muhammad applied god’s laws to all areas of life and used these laws to settle disputes among the people.
The Rise of Islam Expository Writing Suppose you are living in Makkah at the time Muhammad began preaching. Write a short newspaper article that describes Muhammad’s teachings and the reactions of people in the city to those teachings. Answers will vary but should include his teachings and people’s reactions.
The Rise of Islam Compare Islam’s origins to the beginnings of another religion you have studied.
Islamic Empires Get Ready to Read Section Overview This section highlights the spread of Islamic empires into areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe.
Islamic Empires Get Ready to Read (cont.) Focusing on the Main Ideas • Arabs spread Islam through preaching, conquest, and trade. • While Muslims split into two groups, the Arab Empire reached new heights. • Turks and Moguls built Muslim empires in Asia, Africa, and Europe.
Islamic Empires Get Ready to Read (cont.) Locating Places • Damascus (duh·MAS·kuhs) • Indonesia (IHN·duh·NEE·zhuh) • Timbuktu (TIHM·BUHK·TOO) • Baghdad (BAG·dad) • Delhi (DEH·lee)
Islamic Empires Get Ready to Read (cont.) Meeting People • Umayyad (oo·MY·uhd) • Sufi (SOO·fee) • Abbasid (uh·BA·suhd) • Suleiman I (SOO·lay·MAHN) • Mogul (MOH·guhl) • Akbar (AK·buhr)
Islamic Empires Get Ready to Read (cont.) Building Your Vocabulary • caliph (KAY·luhf) • Shiite (SHEE·eyet) • Sunni (SU·nee) • sultan (SUHL·tuhn)
Islamic Empires Get Ready to Read (cont.) Reading Strategy Cause and Effect Create a diagram like the one on page 379 of your textbook, to show why the Arabs were successful conquerors.
Islamic Empires The Spread of Islam • Muhammad’s successor was called a caliph, or successor to the Messenger of God. • The first four caliphs to rule from Madinah all had a personal connection with Muhammad. • The Umayyad caliphs made their capital the city of Damascus. • Islam spread during their rule. (pages 380–381)
Islamic Empires The Spread of Islam (cont.) • The Islamic state soon became a great empire. • It was successful for several reasons. • Arabs were good horsemen who were good with a sword and inspired by their religion. • Muslims believed people who died fighting for Islam would go to paradise. (pages 380–381)
Islamic Empires The Spread of Islam (cont.) • Muslims let conquered people practice their own religion, but they made non-Muslims pay a special tax. • Many conquered people adopted the Muslim customs. • The Sufis were a group of Muslims who spread Islam through teaching. • Muslim merchants spread Islam throughout southeast Asia. (pages 380–381)
Islamic Empires The Spread of Islam (cont.) • Indonesia is a southeast Asian country that has the largest Muslim population in the world. • Timbuktu, a west African city, became the center of Muslim learning. (pages 380–381)
Islamic Empires How did Muslims treat Christians and Jews that lived within their society? Muslims believed Jews and Christians to be People of the Book, meaning they believed in one God and had holy writings. The Muslims did not persecute the Jews and Christians, but they did not treat them as equals.
Islamic Empires Struggles Within Islam • After Muhammad’s death, the Muslims split into two groups: the Sunnis and the Shiites. • The Shiites believed that Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, should succeed Muhammad and that all future caliphs should be descendents of Ali. • Sunnis believe that the Umayyad caliphs were rightful leaders. (pages 382–383)
Islamic Empires Struggles Within Islam (cont.) • Over time, these two groups developed their own customs. • The Umayyad dynasty lost power and was replaced with a new dynasty called the Abbasids. • The Abbasids built a new capital, Baghdad. • Baghdad prospered as a center of trade because of its central location. (pages 382–383)
Islamic Empires Struggles Within Islam (cont.) • The Abbasids lost control as Muslims in other parts of the world wanted their own caliphs. • The Seljuk Turks were nomads and warriors. • They gradually took control of the Abbasid dynasty. • The Seljuk ruler was called a Sultan. • The Arab Empire ended when the Mongols invaded Baghdad and burned it to the ground. (pages 382–383)
Islamic Empires How did the Seljuk Turks take power? The Abbasids hired the Seljuk Turks as soldiers. The Seljuks soon saw that the Abbasids were weak, so the Seljuks took power.
Islamic Empires Later Muslim Empires • The Ottoman Turks were a group of Turks in northwest Asia Minor who began to build their own empire. • They conquered the Byzantine Empire and changed the name of Constantinople to Istanbul. • The Ottoman army moved into Europe, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and parts of Arabia and North Africa. (pages 384–386)
Islamic Empires Later Muslim Empires (cont.) • The leader of the Ottomans was called a sultan. • The most famous sultan was Suleiman I. • After the rule of Suleiman I, the Ottoman empire gradually fell apart, collapsing completely at the end of World War I. • The Ottoman empire was made up of different people who practiced different religions. (pages 384–386)
Islamic Empires Later Muslim Empires (cont.) • Non-Muslims could practice their own religions, but they had to pay a special tax. • Christian families in Eastern Europe had to send their sons to Istanbul to become Muslims and train as soldiers. • The Moguls created a Muslim empire in India and made their capital city Delhi. (pages 384–386)
Islamic Empires Later Muslim Empires (cont.) • Akbar was the greatest Mogul ruler. • The Mogul empire declined after Akbar’s rule. • European merchants used their military power to take control of Mogul territory. • Eventually, Great Britain took over most of India. (pages 384–386)
Islamic Empires How did Akbar treat the Hindus? Akbar believed all people should be treated fairly. Akbar allowed Hindus and Muslims to serve in government, and he allowed Hindus to practice their own religion.
Islamic Empires How did the Muslims treat conquered peoples? They allowed them to practice their own religion, but they had to pay a tax.