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The Origins of American Football

The Origins of American Football

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The Origins of American Football

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  1. The Origins of American Football The Innovators of Modern College Football

  2. Origins of Football • Harpaston – ancient Greek ball game that many have claimed to be a forerunner of football is the game of "Harpaston" • "Harpaston" is the Greek word for handball and not football. • Since the Greeks were the greatest intellects of their time, it is very hard to believe that they made such a fundamental error in naming one of their games.  • The greatest contribution made to football by the Greeks was that the Romans took the game of "Harpaston" and evolved them into a game called "Harpastum". • They also added the vital ingredient of kicking.  • The Roman game of "Harpastum" is considered by many to be a real forerunner to football

  3. Early Football • Mob football is the name given to some varieties of Medieval football, which emerged in Europe during the Middle Ages. • Mob football distinguished itself by typically having an unlimited number of players and fairly vague rules. • By most accounts, any means could be used to move the ball to a goal, as long as it did not lead to manslaughter or murder. • The games were so unruly and violent that royal bans were often placed on the playing of such sport.

  4. Rugby The game of football as played at Rugby School between 1750 and 1823 permitted handling of the ball. No-one was allowed to run with it in their hands towards the opposition's goal. There was no fixed limit to the number of players per side and sometimes there were hundreds taking part in a kind of enormous rolling maul. The innovation of running with the ball was introduced some time between 1820 and 1830, traditionally after William Webb Ellis broke the local rules by running forwards with the ball in a game in 1823. Shortly after this boys from Rugby School produced the first written rules for their version of the sport in 1845.

  5. There are reports of early settlers at Jamestown, Virginia playing games with inflated balls in the early 1600’s • The games remained largely unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. • Each school played its own variety of football. • Princeton students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. • A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. • Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football" • All of these games, and others, shared certain commonalities. • They remained largely "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area, often by any means necessary. • Rules were simple and violence and injury were common. • The violence of these mob-style games led to widespread protests and a decision to abandon them. • Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860, while Harvard followed suit in 1861.

  6. “Roots of American Football” • Two general types of football had evolved by this time: "kicking" games and "running" (or "carrying") games. • A hybrid of the two, known as the "Boston game", was played by a group known as the Oneida Football Club. • The game caught the attention of the press, and the "Boston game" continued to spread throughout the 1860s • The game began to return to college campuses by the late 1860s. Yale, Princeton, Rutgers, and Brown all began playing "kicking" games during this time. (Soccer) • Harvard had refused to compete under the soccer rules, proclaimed the rugby rules more "manly."

  7. Roots of American Football • Rutgers vs. Princeton (1869) (RU won 6-4)

  8. The Birthplace of College Football • On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in a game that is often regarded as the first game of intercollegiate football. • The game was played at a Rutgers field under Rutgers rules. • Two teams of 25 players attempted to score by kicking the ball into the opposing team's goal. • Throwing or carrying the ball was not allowed. • The first team to reach six goals was declared the winner. • Rutgers crossed the line first and went on to win by a score of six to four.

  9. The Birth of American football • In a powerful display of Harvard's prestige, Princeton, Columbia, and Yale switched from soccer to the “Boston Game” at the 1876 formation of the Intercollegiate Football Association in order to compete with Harvard. • On November 23, 1876, representatives from Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Columbia met at the Massasoit House in Springfield, Massachusetts to standardize a new code of rules based on the rugby game.

  10. Walter Camp ( 1859-1925) • The Father of American Football • Developed modern football rules, strategies, and playing techniques • Player (1876-1882)and Coach (1888-1892) at Yale University

  11. Walter Camp • Transformed American football including playing with 11 men, using a line of scrimmage, a system of downs, and the present point system. • These down-and-distance rules, combined with the establishment of the line of scrimmage, transformed the game from a variation of rugby or soccer into the distinct sport of American football.

  12. Expansion of College Football • College football expanded greatly during the 1880’s and 1890’s. In 1880, only eight universities fielded intercollegiate teams, but by 1900, the number had expanded to 43. Several major rivalries date from this time period. • In 1879, the University of Michigan became the first school west of Pennsylvania to establish a college football team. • Other Midwestern schools soon followed suit, including the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Minnesota. • The nation's first college football league, the Big Ten Conference, was founded in 1895.

  13. Led by legendary coach Fielding Yost, Michigan became the first "western" national power. From 1901 to 1905, Michigan had a 56-game undefeated streak that included a 1902 trip to play in the first college football post-season game, the Rose Bowl. During this streak, Michigan scored 2,831 points while allowing only 40.

  14. Amos Alonzo Stagg (1862-1965) • Born in West Orange , New Jersey • Played for Walter Camp at Yale University • Coached at Springfield College, University of Chicago (5 undefeated teams), College of the Pacific, and at Susquehanna Univ. • Credited with the invention of numerous innovations in football • Coached from 1889 to 1952 • (63 years) • As of 2007, he still ranked seventh on the list of most often winning football coaches, with 314 wins

  15. Football is Threatened • Controversy over: • Amateurism • Eligibility / Recruitment of players • Paying of players and coaches • Death & injury

  16. The Issue of Amateurism • One side said “Play out of a deep love for one’s college and love of the game” • The other sides opinion was based on the American Spirit = Value of the market place and win at all costs mentality

  17. Temptation • Recruit the best athlete available regardless of their status as athletes or students • Faculty members / townspeople • “Tramp” players – Most controversial recruitment practice (Paid players that would play for several different schools)

  18. Conferences are Formed • 1905 – Intercollegiate Athletic Association • 1910 – N.C.A.A. • Regulate Rules, not until post WWII did they get involved in regulating institutional behavior. REGIONAL CONFERENCES The first was the Big 10 in 1895

  19. The Professional Coach • 1905 – James J. Hogan captain for Yale received free tuition, a free suite, $100 scholarship, and a 10 day paid vacation in Cuba. • The Harvard Athletic Committee paid Head Coach Bill Reid $7,000 per year. (Twice the amount of a Harvard professor)

  20. The Professional Coach • “Players wanted to win, coaches had to win!” • Changed the way in which football was approached by player, coach, and fan.

  21. Football, Brutality , and TR • Football banned by many colleges in the early 1900’s • 1905 – 18 players killed • 1908 – 33 players killed • 1909 – 30 players killed • President Teddy Roosevelt steps in to reform the brutality in football.

  22. One of the major problems was the popularity of mass-formations like the flying wedge, in which a large number of offensive players charged as a unit against a similarly arranged defense. The resultant collisions often led to serious injuries and sometimes even death.

  23. Modernization and Innovation • As a result, the American Football Rules Committee was formed and, in 1906, plays designed to open up the game and make it less dangerous to play were introduced. Some of the changes made included: • the introduction of the forward pass, • the distance to be gained for a first down increased from five to ten yards, • all mass formations and gang tackling were banned. • in 1914, the first roughing-the-passer penalty was implemented. • in 1918, the rules on eligible receivers were loosened to allow eligible players to catch the ball anywhere on the field—previously strict rules were in place only allowing passes to certain areas of the field. • Scoring rules also changed during this time: field goals were lowered to three points in 1909 • and touchdowns raised to six points in 1912.

  24. The Forward Pass • Brad Robinson, playing for coach Eddie Cochems at St. Louis University, threw the first legal pass in a September 5, 1906 game against Carroll College

  25. John Heisman • Legendary coach for which college football’s top honor is named. • Became the first “full-time” head coach at Auburn in 1895 and stayed until 1899.

  26. John Heisman • Heisman left Auburn for Clemson and then went on to Georgia Tech where he won a National Championship in 1917.

  27. GT vs. Cumberland • The most-lopsided game in the history of college football. Georgia Tech won, 222–0.

  28. Team,Rushing,Passing,Kicking,Turnovers • Cumberland27 attempts, –-96 yards (0 TD)2–18, 14 yards, 0 TD, 6 INT0–0 FG, 0–0 XP15 (6 INT, 9 fumbles) • Georgia Tech40 attempts, 1650 yards (28 TD)0–0, 0 TD, 0 INT0–0 FG, 30–32 XP0

  29. Glenn “Pop” Warner (1871-1954) • One of the most influential coaches in the history of American college football. • His contributions to the game include the single-wing and double wing formations and the screen pass.

  30. “Pop” Warner • Played football at Cornell University (Captain in 1894) • Warner began coaching at Georgia in 1895. • Coached at Cornell, Pittsburgh, Stanford, and Temple. • Retired with a career 313 victories.

  31. Knute Rockne (1888-1931) • Served as the Head Football Coach at Notre Dame from 1918 until his death in a plane crash in 1931. • His teams’ colorful style, emphasizing speed and deception helped popularize college football. • As a player at Notre Dame his role in the 1913 upset of Army brought national attention to N.D. and the forward pass

  32. The 1920’s: The Golden Age of College Football • Harold “Red” Grange • Illinois, Halfback, 1923-1925 • Considered by many to be the greatest player in history. • The 1924 upset of Michigan made Grange a National Folk Hero. • Put Professional Football on the Map

  33. Harold “Red” Grange • Scored the first 4 times he touched the football on a 95 yard Kickoff Return and runs of 67, 56, and 44 yards. • Scored a total of 5 TD’s and threw for another

  34. Grantland Rice • Sportswriter Grantland Rice helped popularize the sport with his poetic descriptions of games and colorful nicknames for the game's biggest players • Including Grange, whom he dubbed "The Galloping Ghost," Notre Dame's "Four Horsemen" backfield, and Fordham University's linemen, known as the "Seven Blocks of Granite".

  35. The Four Horsemen • After Notre Dame's 13-7 upset victory over a strong Army team, on October 18, 1924, Rice penned a famous passage of sports journalism:

  36. "Outlined against a blue-gray October sky, the Four Horsemen rode again. In dramatic lore they are known as famine, pestilence, destruction and death. These are only aliases. Their real names are: Stuhldreher, Miller, Crowley and Layden. They formed the crest of the South Bend cyclone before which another fighting Army team was swept over the precipice at the Polo Grounds this afternoon as 55,000 spectators peered down upon the bewildering panorama spread out upon the green plain below."

  37. College Football Becomes National

  38. Greatest College Rivalry of All Time • ARMY vs. NAVY • First Army / Navy game was played in 1890 • Signature Game: December 7, 1963 Navy – 21 Army - 16 Army / Navy Game - 1945

  39. 1869 – Princeton 1870 – Princeton 1871 – No Games Played 1872 – Princeton 1873 – Princeton 1874 – Yale 1875 – Princeton / Harvard 1876 - Yale 1877 – Yale 1878 – Princeton 1879 - Princeton 1880 – Yale 1881 – Yale 1882 – Yale 1883 – Yale 1884 – Yale 1885 – Princeton 1886 – Yale 1887 – Yale 1888 – Yale 1889 – Princeton 1890 - Harvard College Football’s National Champions

  40. 1891 – Yale 1892 – Yale 1893 – Princeton 1894 – Yale 1895 – Penn 1896 – Princeton / Lafayette 1897 – Penn 1898 – Harvard 1899 – Princeton / Harvard 1900 – Yale 1901 – Harvard / Michigan 1902 – Michigan 1903 – Princeton 1904 – Penn / Michigan 1905 – Chicago 1906 – Princeton 1907 – Yale 1908 – Penn / LSU 1909 – Yale 1910 – Harvard / Pitt 1911 – Princeton / Penn St. 1912 – Harvard / Penn St. College Football’s National Champions

  41. 1913 – Harvard 1914 – Army 1915 – Cornell 1916 – Pitt 1917 – Georgia Tech. 1918 – Pitt / Michigan 1919 – Harvard / Illinois / Notre Dame 1920 – Cal 1921 – Cal 1922 – Cal / Princeton 1923 – Illinois / Michigan 1924 – Notre Dame 1925 – Alabama / Dartmouth 1926 – Alabama 1927 – Yale / Illinois 1928 – Georgia Tech / USC 1929 – Notre Dame 1930 – Notre Dame 1931 – USC 1932 – USC / Michigan 1933 – Michigan / Ohio State / USC 1934 - Minnesota College Football’s National Champions

  42. 1935 – Minnesota / SMU / Princeton / LSU 1936 – Minnesota / LSU 1937 – Pitt / Cal 1938 – TCU / Notre Dame / Tennessee 1939 – Texas A&M / Cornell 1940 – Minnesota / Tennessee 1941 – Minnesota/ Texas 1942 – Ohio St./ Georgia 1943 – Notre Dame 1944 – Army 1945 - Army 1946 – Notre Dame 1947 – Norte Dame 1948 – Michigan / Notre Dame 1949 – Notre Dame 1950 – Oklahoma 1951 – Tennessee 1952 – Michigan St. / Georgia Tech 1953 – Maryland 1954 – Ohio State 1955 – Oklahoma 1956 – Oklahoma College Football’s National Champions

  43. 1957 – Auburn / Ohio St. 1958 – LSU / Iowa 1959 – Syracuse 1960 – Minnesota 1961 – Alabama 1962 – USC 1963 – Texas 1964 – Alabama / Arkansas 1965 – Alabama / Mich. St. 1966 – Notre Dame 1967 - USC 1968 – Ohio State 1969 – Texas 1970 – Nebraska 1971 – Nebraska 1972 – USC 1973 – Notre Dame / Alabama 1974 – Oklahoma 1975 – Oklahoma 1976 – Pitt 1977 – Notre Dame College Football’s National Champions

  44. 1978 – Alabama / USC 1979 – Alabama 1980 – Georgia 1981 – Clemson 1982 – Penn St. 1983 – Miami 1984 – BYU 1985 – Oklahoma 1986 – Penn St. 1987 – Miami 1988 – Notre Dame 1989 – Miami 1990 – Colorado / Georgia Tech 1991 – Miami / Washington 1992 – Alabama 1993 – Florida State 1994 – Nebraska 1995 – Nebraska 1996 – FLORIDA 1997 – Michigan / Nebraska 1998 – Tennessee 1999 – Florida St. College Football’s National Champions

  45. 2000 – Oklahoma 2001 – Miami 2002 – Ohio St. 2003 – USC / LSU 2004 – USC 2005 - Texas 2006 – Florida 2007 - LSU 2008 – ? College Football’s National Champions