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Chapter 10: State and Local Prison Systems

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Chapter 10: State and Local Prison Systems

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  1. Corrections in America An Introduction Eleventh Edition Allen, Latessa, Ponder and Simonsen Chapter 10: State and LocalPrison Systems

  2. Annual Costs Of Prisons $42,939,742,000.00

  3. Offenders • Over 1,410,000 adult male prisoners • In more than 1,600 adult state and local prisons in the nation (16%-State Prisons) • 93% of all prison populations

  4. Pennsylvania • 26 State Correctional Institutions • 1 Motivational Boot Camp • 13 Community Corrections Facilities • 50 Private Community Corrections Facilities • 15,000 employees • 45,300 inmates • 63 County Prisons http://www.cor.state.pa.us/portal/lib/county/countystatistics.pdf

  5. Classification • Process by which inmates are assigned to appropriate security and treatment facilities in accordance with their characteristics and needs, which determines the institution to which an inmate will be assigned

  6. Classification: cont. • Some institutional needs occasionally take precedence over an individual’s needs • Is an ongoing process that is reviewed as needed (“reclassification”)

  7. Sentenced Male Prisoners, 2003

  8. Male Incarceration Rates by Group (rate per 100,000)

  9. Educational Attainment • 70% had not received a high school diploma or GED • U.S population 36%

  10. Marital Status • At the time of the last national survey of prisoners: • About 1 in 6 was married (15%) • 6 in 10 had never been married (60%) • The others were separated, divorced, or widowed (25%)

  11. Drug Abuse • More than 8 in 10 inmates report they have used illegal drugs in their lifetime • Almost 1 in 3 report using those drugs at the time of their instant offense

  12. Alcohol Abuse • Is widespread among male prisoners • More than 8 in 10 reported they consumed alcohol • 4 in 10 reported drinking at least a fifth of liquor in a single day (“binge drinking”)

  13. Alcohol Abuse: cont. • More than 3 in 10 report they were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their instant offense • Most had participated in at least one alcohol/drug abuse program while under correctional supervision

  14. Criminal History • At the time of their current offense, almost half of the male inmates in state prison had some prior criminal justice status: • 1 in 4 was on parole • 1 in 5 was on probation • 1% had escaped from confinement

  15. Recidivism • The latest survey of state prisoners found that: • Almost half were violent recidivists • Another 3 in 10 were non-violent recidivists • Less than 1 in 4 had no previous sentence

  16. Prison Population Growth: • Building costs are high • Averaging $74,000 per bed • Lower security units are less expensive (about $30,000/bed) • Maximum security units are more expensive (about $80,000/bed) • Per diem incarceration cost: $70/inmate (house, feed, control, and care for state inmates)

  17. Inmates By Security Level (in percent)

  18. City Operated Prisons • Cook County • New York City • Washington D.C. • Philadelphia • 110 adult prisons • Over 30,000 adult offenders

  19. Military PrisonersApproximately 2200 Total

  20. Prisoners in the U.S. Territories • All five U.S. territories and commonwealths reported prisoners in 2003 (16,494 inmates) • The rate of incarceration per 100,000 adults in these jurisdictions was about the same as two-thirds of the mainland states • Puerto Rico had the most prisoners (15,046)

  21. Cruel and Unusual Punishment • 1970’: state and federal courts were asked to examine the operations and policies of correctional facilities to ensure compliance with the 8th Amendment

  22. Cruel and Unusual Punishment • By February 1983: • The entire prison system was declared unconstitutional in: Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Michigan (all the male institutions) • At least one or more facilities in another 21 states were operating under a court order or consent decree

  23. Cruel and Unusual Punishment • Civil Rights Law of 1871 • Provides citizens denied constitutional rights by the state may sue in the federal courts • Designed to protect newly freed slaves • 1964 Cooper v. Pate • Prisoners may seek relief in federal court by way of the 1871 act.

  24. Security Threat Groups (STG) • Formerly known as “prison gangs,” are two or more inmates acting together who pose a threat to the security and safety of staff/inmates, and/or are disruptive to programs and the orderly management of the facility

  25. Supermax Prisons • Free-standing facility that provides for management and secure control of inmates officially designated as exhibiting violent or seriously aggressive behavior while incarcerated

  26. Supermax Prisoners • Violent, seriously disruptive, assaultive, and escape-prone inmates • Including gang activists… Who pose immense challenges to prison security and custody

  27. Supermax Prisons • How are inmates selected? • How do inmates earn release? • Cost? • Litigation • Sensory deprivation • Classification • Access to law libraries and attorneys • Quality of mental health services • Excessive use of force

  28. Training • High School Diploma or GED • No record of prior felony conviction • Minimum age of 21 • Valid driver’s license SCSC: 2006 764 Corrections Officer Trainee

  29. Summary • Most prison systems are overcrowded • Prisoners have multiple problems that contributed to their incarceration • Some prisoners are dangerous and disruptive • Security must be tight for high-risk inmates (“supermax prisons”)