Major fashion centers(don’t write these down ) • New York City • Los Angeles • Atlanta • Chicago • Dallas • Miami • Seattle • Paris • Milan • Florence • Rome • London
1. New York City, New York Largest fashion marketing center in U.S. “Seventh Avenue garment district” in Manhattan Permanent manufacturer showrooms from U.S. and the world Most production jobs have been lost to other countries with cheaper labor. Some production jobs exist in Chinatown, Queens, and Brooklyn.
New York City, New York (cont.) Fashion weeks sponsored by the Council of Fashion Designers of America (CFDA) Formed corporation called 7th on Sixth, Inc. to centralize runway shows Shows held in tents in Bryant Park
2. Los Angeles, California CaliforniaMart is the largest fashion and textile facility in the U.S. An 82-block garment district includes designers, wholesalers, manufacturers, and patternmakers. Hosts a fashion week five times a year Primarily serves the West coast**
3. Atlanta, Georgia • AmericasMart • Primarily serves southeast • 4. Chicago, Illinois:central states • 5. Dallas, Texas • International Apparel Mart • Primarily serves central states • ***Known for evening, bridal, and western fashion
6. Miami, Florida • World’s largest swimwear show*** • Wholesale center for the Americas • 7. Seattle, Washington
Paris, France • World fashion leader • Shows attract over 40,000 visitors and 1,100 exhibitors from 30 countries • ***Prêt-à-porter Paris® shows twice a year at the same times as mass-produced lines but at different locations. “French ready-to-wear”
Paris, France (cont.) • Haute couture businesses are located in city “fashion houses” rather than in commercial buildings. • Haute couture designers must belong to ChambreSyndicale. The couturier (or couturiére if female) must be recognized as talented and successful to become a member. • ChambreSyndicale: The trade association for top designers, which is governed by the French Department of Industry.
Paris, France (Cont.) • ChambreSyndicale • Sets qualifications for couture houses and requirements for collection showings • Sponsors a school to educate apprentices • Coordinates dates of showings
Paris, France (cont.) • Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (LMVH) • French luxury goods conglomerate • Christian Dior SA is the parent company. • Owns about 50 brands. Examples: LaCroix, Celine, Givenchy, Donna Karan, Guerlain (perfumes), and Sephora (cosmetics) • Buys and sells brands based on the profit potential
***Alta moda: The high fashion industry in Italy. • Rome is the center for couture. • Milan is the center for high-quality ready-to-wear. • Florence is known for lower-priced ready-to-wear, menswear, children’s wear, and knitwear. • Main collections are shown in fashion fairs prior to the French showings. ITALY
GREAT BRITAIN • London is the major fashion center. • Bond Street is the creative center. • British Fashion Council (BFC) • Fashion week twice a year • Top ready-to-wear designers belong to a co-op association called London Designer Collections.
Fashion Design Terminology • **Collection:The total merchandise in a designer’s or apparel manufacturer’s seasonal presentation, especially for high-priced garments. • Couture: high fashion clothing created by designers • Couturier (koo-tour-i-er): A male high fashion designer. • Fashion designer: One who creates or adapts clothing and accessory designs for manufacturers, retailers, or individual clients.
**Fashion piracy: Stealing design ideas. • Fashion seasons: Distinct retail selling periods in fashion marketing. • Garment district: The area in a fashion center where most of the apparel companies are located. • Haute couture (hoatkoo-tour’): The name for the high fashion designer industry of France; high-fashion, individually designed, original garments.
Alta moda: The name for the high fashion industry in Italy. • Licensing: A legal arrangement granting a manufacturer the exclusive right to produce and market goods that bear the name of a famous person. • **Line:A collection of styles offered by a manufacturer or designer. • Prêt-a-porter (prêt-a-por-tay’): French term for ready-to-wear**.
Private label: Merchandise developed for a given store and displaying that store’s label; found in better, moderate, and budget price market categories. • Ready-to-wear: Apparel mass produced in factories to standard size measurements.
Basic types of designers • 1. Couture: high fashion clothing designer • 2. **Stylist: One who designs by changing or adapting designs of others • Makes lower-priced merchandise • Creations made during the rise stage of the fashion cycle • Primarily designs for manufacturers like The Gap, The Limited, and Guess • 3. **Freelance designer: An independent designer who sells sketches to manufacturers.
Women’s Apparel Price market categories • **1. Designer (Couture) • Category now almost extinct due to the extremely small market • Original, high-priced fashion custom-made for a very few individuals • One-of-a-kind extreme styles, avante-garde • Luxurious, expensive fabrics and trims with intricate details • Sold through the designer’s salon • VERY expensive; generates no profit
2. Bridge • Has almost replaced the couture category • Secondary lines of well-known couture designers • Have the designer’s label • Most expensive ready-to-wear • Limited editions, small quantities offered for sale • Expensive fabrics with fine details
Bridge • Sell for many hundreds of dollars, maybe as much as $5,000 • Sold in fashionable dress shops and upscale department stores like Neiman Marcus, Sak’s, Nordstrom’s, and Bergdorf Goodman
3. Better • Have a firm label rather than a designer’s name. Example: Jones of New York, Liz Claiborne • Ready-to-wear produced in larger quantities • Reasonable prices • High quality
. • Better • Found in specialty stores and department stores. Examples: Macy’s, Marshall Field, and Lord & Taylor
4. Moderate • Well-known and nationally-advertised brand labels. ***Examples: Jantzen, Gap, and Wrangler • Lesser-known or unknown designers work for the manufacturer. • Many items inspired by designer creations • Widely available and worn by the majority of America
Moderate • Medium-priced merchandise • High volume sales and higher price margins • Sold primarily through department, chain, or specialty stores
5. Budget/Discount • Lowest priced category • Created by stylists • **Knockoffs: Copies of higher-priced items. • Mass produced in less expensive fabrics with fewer details • Brands such as Gitano, Donkenny, Kathie Lee, Arizona jeans, and Cherokee
Budget/Discount • Sold in discount stores and low-price chains • Private labels such as Arizona jeans (J.C. Penney), Apostrophe (Sears), and Cherokee (Target)