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Alchemy Unit

Alchemy Unit

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Alchemy Unit

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  1. Alchemy Unit Investigation V: Building with Matter Lesson 1: You Light Up My Life Lesson 2: Electron Glue Lesson 3: Nobel Gas Envy Lesson 4: Getting Connected Lesson 5: Salty Eights Lesson 6: As Good as Gold

  2. Alchemy Unit – Investigation V Lesson 1: You Light Up My Life

  3. ChemCatalyst • If you were to drop a spoonful of salt, NaCl, into a glass of water, what would happen? If you were to drop a gold ring into a glass of water, what would happen? • What do you think is different about the atoms of these two substances? What type of bonding does each substance have? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  4. The Big Question • What patterns do we see in the properties of substances? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  5. You will be able to: • Predict whether MgSO4(aq), epsom salts, will conduct electricity. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  6. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  7. Activity • Purpose: This lesson allows you to collect evidence regarding some of the properties of substances, and look for patterns. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  8. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  9. (cont.) (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  10. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  11. Making Sense Unit 1 • Investigation V

  12. Notes Dissolves Yes No Conducts Conducts Yes No Yes No Unit 1 • Investigation V

  13. Check-Out • Predict whether MgSO4(aq), epsom salts, will conduct electricity. State your reasoning. • If it is dangerous to take a bath with a blow dryer, what must also be true about the water in the bathtub? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  14. Wrap-Up • Not all substances conduct electricity. • Substances that do conduct electricity involve either solid metals, or metal-nonmetal compounds dissolved in water. • Not all substances dissolve in water. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  15. Alchemy Unit – Investigation V Lesson 2: Electron Glue

  16. ChemCatalyst • A gold ring is made up of individual gold atoms. • What keeps the atoms together? • Why don’t the atoms just fall apart from each other? • What parts of the atom do you think are responsible for keeping the atoms together in a solid? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  17. The Big Question • How can we use bonding to explain the properties of substances we encounter? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  18. You will be able to: • Classify the bonding that occurs in the making of brass. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  19. Notes: Chemical Bond and Valence Electrons • A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that holds them together in space. • The electrons in the outer shell determine how atoms bond. These are called valence electrons. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  20. Notes(cont.) • Atoms which are connected into many identical units are called molecules. They units may be composed of only two atoms or of dozens of atoms. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  21. Notes • Model 1: IONIC • Properties: • Made of metal and non-metal atoms • Dissolves in water • Conducts electricity when dissolved but not when solid • Brittle solids • Description of drawing: Spheres without gray areas represent metal atoms. Spheres with gray areas are non-metal atoms. Metal atoms “give up” their valence electrons to non-metal atoms. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  22. Notes(cont.) • Model 2: COVALENT NETWORK • Properties: • Made entirely of nonmetal atoms • Does not dissolve in water • Does not conduct electricity • Very hard solids • Description of drawing: Valence electrons connect atoms with each other in all directions – like a grid or network. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  23. Notes(cont.) • Model 3: METALLIC • Properties: • Made entirely of metal atoms • Do not dissolve in water • Conduct electricity • Bendable solids • Description of drawing: Valence electrons are free to move throughout the substance like a “sea” of electrons. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  24. Notes(cont.) • Model 4: MOLECULAR COVALENT • Properties: • Made of nonmetal atoms • Some dissolve in water, some do not • Do not conduct electricity • Tend to be liquids or gases or softer solids • Description of drawing: Valence electrons are shared between some atoms. This creates small stable units within the substance. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  25. (cont.) Covalent Network Molecular Covalent Ionic Metallic (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  26. Notes(cont.) Metal atoms Non-Metal atoms Metal & Non-Metal atoms Covalent Network Molecular Covalent Metallic Ionic Unit 1 • Investigation V

  27. Activity • Purpose: This lesson helps to explain the physical properties of basic substances by examining the types of bonds that exist between the atoms of these substances. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  28. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  29. Making Sense • If you have the chemical formula of a substance, how and what can you figure out about it’s properties? Explain. Use the compound silver nitrate, AgNO3, as an example. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  30. Check Out • On the very first day of class, you combined copper with zinc to form brass. How would you classify the bonding in brass? Ionic, Covalent or metallic? • Would it dissolve in water? Why or why not? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  31. Wrap-Up • A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms involving the valence electrons. • There are four types of bonds: ionic, extended covalent, molecular covalent, and metallic. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  32. Alchemy Unit – Investigation V Lesson 3: Noble Gas Envy

  33. ChemCatalyst • What type of bonding does this picture represent? • What happens to the charge on each atom? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  34. You will be able to: • Predict what would have to happen for potassium to obtain a noble gas configuration. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  35. What happens when atoms bond? • Atoms can gain or loose electrons when they bond (covalent, ionic or metallic) • When this happens the atom is called an ion because it will have a charge. (positive or negative) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  36. Notes • A valuable piece of information helps us predict which ions might be encountered in chemistry : Atoms tend to lose or gain electrons to attain the electron configuration of the noble gas nearest to it on the periodic table. (cont.) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  37. What do atoms do when they bond? • When atoms bond they will gain or loose electrons to get closer to the configuration of their nearest noble gas. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  38. How do we know which ones will gain and which ones will lose? • Metals tend to lose their electrons (becoming positive +) while nonmetals tend to gain electrons (becoming negative -) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  39. What do they become when they gain or lose electrons? • Cations :Atoms that loose electrons and have a positive charge. • Ex. Sodium becomes Na+ _______________________________ • Anions: Atoms that gain electrons and have a negative charge. • Ex. Bromine becomes Br- Unit 1 • Investigation V

  40. Which is the cation and which is the anion? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  41. Purpose: You will explore the ions that are formed when atoms give up and receive electrons from other atoms • . Unit 1 • Investigation V

  42. Make a picture for all of the elements in Period 2 ( skip Flourine) Unit 1 • Investigation V

  43. Making Sense • Why do you think the noble gas configuration is especially stable? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  44. Check-Out • Write the electron configuration for potassium, K. • What would have to happen for potassium to have a noble gas configuration? Explain. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  45. Wrap-Up • Atoms can gain or lose electrons to end up with a noble gas configuration. • When atoms lose electrons, they have a positive charge and are called cations. • When atoms gain electrons, they have a negative charge and are called anions. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  46. Alchemy Unit – Investigation V Lesson 4: Getting Connected

  47. ChemCatalyst • Only certain combinations of elements result in the formation of compounds. Li, lithium, will react with F, fluorine, to form LiF, but it won’t form LiF2 or LiF3. Mg, magnesium will react with F to form MgF2, but it won’t form MgF or MgF3. Explain what you think is going on. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  48. The Big Question • What determines how two elements will combine to form ionic compounds? Unit 1 • Investigation V

  49. You will be able to: • Use the number of valence electrons to determine which ionic compounds can form. Unit 1 • Investigation V

  50. Notes • Rule of Eight: Ionic compounds tend to form from atoms that together have a total of 8 (or a multiple of 8) electrons in their outermost (valence) shells. This gives each ion a valence electron configuration identical to a noble gas and makes them very stable. Unit 1 • Investigation V