AP European History Eugene Delecroix Chapter 12: The Conservative Order And The Challenges of Reform (1815-1832) Pages # 428-461
Learning Objectives: 1. What were the goals of the Concert of Europe? 2. How did early 19th-Century nationalists define the nation? 3. What explains the strength of conservatism in the early 19th-Century? 4. What sparked the wars of independence in Latin America? 5. How did Russia, France, and Britain respond to challenges to the conservative order?
Chapter Outline: I. The Conservative Order II. The Emergence of Nationalism and Liberalism III. Conservative Restoration in Europe IV. The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe V. The Wars of Independence in Latin America
Vocabulary 1. Concert of Europe(429) 2. conservatism(430) 3. nationalism(431) 4. congress system(429) 5. Great Reform Bill(456)
Chapter 12 Review Questions: 1. What is nationalism? What were the goals of nationalists? What difficulties did nationalists confront in realizing those goals? Why was nationalism a special threat to the Austrian Empire? What areas saw significant nationalist movements between 1815 and 1830? Which were successful and which unsuccessful? 2. What were the tenets of liberalism? Who were the liberals, and how did liberalism affect the political developments of the early nineteenth century? What is the relationship of liberalism to nationalism? 3. What difficulties did the conservatives in Austria, Prussia, and Russia face after the Napoleonic wars? How did they attempt to solve those difficulties at home and in international affairs? What were the aims of the Concert of Europe? How did the Congress of Vienna change international relations? 4. What were the main reasons for Creole discontent with Spanish rule, and to what extent did Enlightenment political philosophy influence the Creole leaders? Who were some of the primary leaders of Latin American independence? Why was Brazil’s path to independence different from that of Spanish America? 5. What were the main provisions of the constitution of the restored monarchy in France? What did Charles X hope to accomplish? Why did revolution break out in France in 1830? What did this revolution achieve and what problems did it fail to resolve? 6. Why did Britain avoid a revolution in the early 1830s? What was the purpose of the Great Reform Bill? What did it achieve? Would you call it a “revolutionary” document? 7. By approximately 1830, how had European political ambitions and the ideas of liberalism and nationalism begun to undermine the Ottoman Empire? Which Ottoman territories were lost by that date?
The Challenges of Nationalismand Liberalism I. Nationalism: a. Single most powerful European political ideology of the 19th and 20th centuries b. Replaced Conservatism (monarchism) as most common government in Europe 1. Monarchs either replaced with representative governments or constitutional monarchies 2. Nationalism (the idea of pride in ones’ own nation) would see a rapid increase as revolutions in North America, Europe, and later in Latin America asserted their power due to the popular readings of the “Age of Enlightenment”. Congress of Vienna c. Nationalism would show itself in: 1. Unification of Germany 2. Unification of Italy 3. Independence in Greece 4. a Republic in France 5. Latin America independence from Spain and Portugal
The Challenges of Nationalismand Liberalism d. Nationalism- 1. national spirit or aspirations 2. devotion and loyalty to one's own nation; patriotism 3. excessive patriotism; chauvinism 4. the desire for national advancement or independence 5. the policy or doctrine of asserting the interests of one's own nation, viewed as separate from the interests of other nations or the common interests of all nations 6. an idiom or trait peculiar to a nation 7. a movement, as in the arts, based upon the folk idioms, history, aspirations, etc., of a nation
The Challenges of Nationalismand Liberalism e. Liberalism- 1. a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, parliamentary systems of government, nonviolent modification of political, social, or economic institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human endeavor, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties 2. a movement in modern Protestantism that emphasizes freedom from tradition and authority, the adjustment of religious beliefs to scientific conceptions, and the development of spiritual capacities
The Challenges of Nationalismand Liberalism f. Conservatism (monarchism)- 1. the disposition to preserve or restore what is established and traditional and to limit change
The Peace Settlement A. 1814, Conservative forces had defeated French armies and stopped further spread of French Revolution… 1. questions remained concerning balance of power in Europe… 2. boundaries of various European nations changed (Prussia created as “sentinel” or guard against further French expansion in Europe 3. belief that if European nations equal no further wars would occur 4. however, those nations who suffered under French occupation demanded compensation (reparations) for losses
Klemens Wenzel NepomukLothar prince von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein -(born May 15, 1773, Coblenz, archbishopric of Trier — died June 11, 1859, Vienna, Austria) -Austrian statesman. -He served in the diplomatic service as Austrian minister in Saxony (1801 – 03), Berlin (1803 – 05), and Paris (1806 – 09). -1809 Francis I of Austria (see Emperor Francis II) appointed him minister of foreign affairs, a position he would retain until 1848. -helped promote the marriage of Napoleon and Francis's daughter Marie-Louise. -By skillful diplomacy and deceit, he kept Austria neutral in the war between France and Russia (1812) and secured its position of power before finally allying with Prussia and Russia (1813). -In gratitude for his diplomatic achievements, the emperor created Metternich a hereditary prince.
Klemens Wenzel NepomukLothar prince von Metternich-Winneburg-Beilstein -In gratitude for his diplomatic achievements, the emperor created Metternich a hereditary prince. -As the organizer of the Congress of Vienna (1814 – 15), he was largely responsible for the policy of balance of power in Europe to ensure the stability of European governments. -After 1815 he remained firmly opposed to liberal ideas and revolutionary movements. He was forced to resign by the revolution of 1848. He is remembered for his role in restoring Austria as a leading European power.
Intervention & Repression • Under Metternich, Austria, Prussia & Russia led crusade against “liberalism” • 1. formed “holy” alliance to check future liberal & revolutionary activity • 2. “holy” alliance intervened in Spain, Sicily to restore conservatism • 3. however, Latin American colonies broke away from Spain, Portugal • 4. Metternich’s policies dominated German Confederation, through which Carlsbad Decrees were issued in 1819 • 5. Decrees repressed subversive ideas and organizations in 38 German states Peoples of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1815 The old dynastic state was a patchwork of nationalities. Note the widely scattered pockets of Germans and Hungarians
Metternich & Conservatism C. Metternich represented the view that the best state blended monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy 1. he hated liberalism (claimed stirred up lower classes & caused war & bloodshed) D. Radical Ideas & early “socialism” 1. after 1815 new ideas emerged 2. liberals demanded representative government, equality before the law, individual freedoms (freedom of speech/assembly) 3. early 19th century liberals opposed government intervention in social/economic affairs
Metternich & Conservatism 4. economic liberalism known as “laissez-faire”, principle that economy should be left unregulated a. Adam Smith critical of mercantilism & argued for free economy that would bring wealth for all 5. political liberalism became middle-class doctrine, often used to exclude lower classes from government and business a. some “radicals” called for universal voting rights, a move beyond liberalism
Nationalism 1. Nationalism was a 2nd radical idea in the years after 1815 a. advocated idea of “cultural unity” b. nationalists sought to turn cultural unity into political reality, so that territory of each people coincides with its state boundaries c. new urban-industrial society needed better communications between individuals and groups (national language) d. common belief in “the people” linked nationalism with democracy, liberalism, and republicanism
Nationalism Nationalists believed that every nation had the right to exist in freedom 3. However, nationalism “we” and “they” ideas of national superiority and national mission
Latin American Revolution 16th-19th Century South America 20th Century South America
Latin American Revolution IV. L’Ouverture & army supported French Revolution a. proclaimed himself “Governor for Life” b. Napoleon sent army to Haiti where they captured L’Ouverture & sent him back to France, died in prison, 1803 I. Spain and Portugal would effectively partition Latin America. II. French Revolution and writings from the Age of Enlightenment (in Europe) gave hope and promise to those who sought to seek independence in the New World III. Haitian independence would come as a result of the French Revolution. a. Toussaint L’Ouverture (1746-1803), a former slave, led revolt against French b. 1791 revolt unsuccessful, though by 1793 slaves would be freed
Latin American Revolution I. Wars of Independence on the South American Continent a. Creole elites led movement against Spanish rule II. Social Order in New World: a. Peninsulars b. Creoles c. Mestizos d. Mullatos e. slaves f. Indian(Native American) Simon Bolivar Jose de San Martin
Communism I. What is a Revolution? a. A complete change in the way things are done (Agricultural Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Russian Revolution) b. Sometimes peaceful c. Sometimes violent d. Russian Revolution = the overthrow of the Tsar’s government and the establishment of Communist Rule Engles
Communism Karl Marx • Spontaneous revolution of the working class • “Let the ruling classes tremble at the prospect of a communist revolution. Proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have the world to win. Proletarians of all lands, unite!”
Communism:Communist Manifesto 1848 1. Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes. 2. A heavy progressive or graduated income tax. 3. Abolition of all rights of inheritance. 4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.
Communism:Communist Manifesto: 5. Centralization of credit in the banks of the state, by means of a national bank with state capital and an exclusive monopoly. 6. Centralization of the means of communication and transport in he hands of the state. 7. Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the state; the bringing into cultivation of waste lands, and the improvement of the soil generally in accordance with a common plan. 8. Equal obligation of all to work. Establishment of industrial armies, especially for agriculture.
Communism:Communist Manifesto: 9. Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; gradual abolition of all the distinction between town and country by a more equable distribution of the populace over the country. 10. Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of children's factory labour in its present form. Combination of education with industrial production, etc.