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Language Levels

Language Levels

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Language Levels

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  1. Language Levels Phonology

  2. JABBERWOCKY ’Twasbrillig, and the slithytoves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe; All mimsy were the borogoves, And the momerathsoutgrabe. ‘Beware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jujub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch!’ He took his vorpal sword in hand: Long time the manxome foe he sought – So rested he by the Tumtum tree, And stood awhile in thought. And, as in uffish thought he stood, The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame, Came whiffling through the tulgey wood, And burbled as it came! One, two! One, two! And through and through The vorpal blade went snicker-snack! He left it dead, and with its head He went galumphing back. ‘And has thou slain the Jabberwock? Come to my arms, my beamish boy! O frabjous day! Calloh! Callay!’ He chortled in his joy. ’Twasbrillig, and the slithytoves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe; All mimsy were the borogoves, And the momerathsoutgrabe.

  3. “Poets like Carroll, Seuss, and others have defined the genre of Nonsense Poetry. They have made an art out of combining neologisms with poetic form and giving their readers a sense that they know what is happening in a poem without having any idea what these new words mean alone. These poets must not only have knowledge about word rhymes and the rhythm of poetry, but they must also have a sense of what could phonologically constitute a word.”

  4. Aims and Objectives Aim: for you to recognise aspects of phonology in written texts Objectives: • Recognise terminology connected with phonology • Analyse texts, labelling with appropriate terminology • Use the IPA symbols (International Phonetic Alphabet) to write your name

  5. Let’s recreate some classic literature! Dickens:It was a town of red brick, or of brick that would have been red if thesmoke and ashes had allowed it; but as matters stood it was a town ofunnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage.It was a town of machinery and tall chimneys, out of which interminableserpents of smoke trailed themselves for ever and ever, and never gotuncoiled. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill-smellingdye, arid vast piles of building full of windows where there was a rattlingand a trembling all day long, and where the piston of the steam-engineworked monotonously up and down, like the head of an elephant in a state ofmelancholy madness. It contained several large streets all very like oneanother, and many small streets still more like one another, inhabited bypeople equally like one another, who all went in and out at the same hours,with the same sound upon the same pavements, to do the same work, and towhom every day was the same as yesterday and tomorrow, and every year thecounterpart of the last and the next.

  6. SteinbeckA few miles south of Soledad, the Salinas River drops in close to thehillside bank and runs deep and green. The water is warm too, for it has slipped twinkling over the yellow sands in the sunlight before reaching the narrow pool. On one side of the river the golden foothill slopes curve up to the strong and rocky Gabilan Mountains, but on the valley side the water is lined with trees - willows fresh and green with every spring, carrying in their lower leaf junctures the debris of the winter's flooding; and sycamores with mottled, white, recumbent limbs and branches that arch over the pool.

  7. Dickens and Steinbeck both rely on patterns and tones, playing with vowel and consonant patterns: We all and every one use the phonic qualities of languageto create a tone that will communicate our (or a useful...) mood orattitude. 

  8. In pairs, say the below phrase showing different emotions or identifying different pragmatic meanings I’m sorry I can’t believe it What Please leave I’m so happy for you

  9. Phonetics refers to the physical production of sounds Phonology is the sound of language. You will already be familiar with some aspects of phonology from GCSE -alliteration/ onomatopoeia – and maybe some others. Look for:

  10. Task: analyse the following in terms of their phonological effect:

  11. Syllables Phonemes combine together to make sound units called SYLLABLES. A syllable is a unit of pronunciation that contains a vowel (or vowel sound). You can count syllables by counting the movements of the chin, which drops when a vowel sound is made. The construction of a syllable is usually: consonant(s) + vowel + consonant(s): e.g. string (string). Some syllables have only a single consonant e.g. and ; so; the. How many syllables in: • antidisestablishmentarianism?

  12. Words consisting of one syllable are known as MONOSYLLABIC. Words of more than one syllable are known as POLYSYLLABIC. E.g. For-bidd-ing (3 syllables); en-ter-tain-ment (4 syllables) Multiple use of a polysyllabic words is a feature of more formal texts. Latinate words retained in English are often polysyllabic arriving here from the Norman French invaders of the eleventh century.

  13. Song lyrics Song lyrics also rely on phonology to create effects.

  14. A mondegreen is a misheard song lyric. One famous one comes from the Jimi Hendrix song Purple Haze. He sings “Excuse me, while I kiss the sky,” but many people hear “Excuse me, while I kiss this guy.” Children are particularly susceptible to this problem: they say prayers to “Our father, who art in Heaven, Howard be thy name,” and think “Donuts make your brown eyes blue”

  15. Using the IPA symbols There are 26 letters of the alphabet … But we make 44 sounds in language communication (43 if you’re a Northerner) Forget spelling conventions like double letters (we don’t say, for instance le -t – t- ers) Use the IPA symbols to write the SOUND of your name

  16. The IPA

  17. Task Choose your challenge! Novice – write your first name using IPA. Intermediate – write your first and last name using IPA. Master – Write your full name, including middle names in IPA and write any nicknames you have.

  18. Translate the following words /ʃaʊt/ /nɔɪz/ /dɒktə/ /ʤesʧə/  /jɔːn/  /dænsɪŋ/ /pleɪ/ /mʌðə/ /vɛʤɪtəbl/

  19. Types of sound Plosives Plosives are created when the airflow is blocked for a brief time (also called ‘stop consonants’) /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ (voiceless and voiced) Fricatives Fricatives are created when the airflow is only partially blocked and air moves through the mouth in a steady stream /f/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/ /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /Ʒ/

  20. Types of sound Affricatives Affricatives are created by putting plosives and fricatives together /ʤ/ /ʧ/ Approximants Approximants are similar to vowels in that there is an open air flow /w/ /j/ /r/ Nasals Nasals are produced by air flowing through the nose /m/ /n/ /ŋ/

  21. Types of sound Laterals Laterals are created by placing the tongue on the ridge of the teeth and then air moving down the side of the mouth /l/

  22. Maluma Takete

  23. Sound Iconicity Text producers use sound patterns in the same way as other language features to help create effects. Often this involves using patterns where sounds mirror the actions they describe, or which are intended to draw attention to some relationship between sound and form. This is sound iconicity. E.g. ‘Noooo’ the reduplication of the vowel sound signifies emphasis. Examples of onomatopoeia: slam, splash, bam, babble, warble, gurgle, mumble, and belch

  24. Sound patterns in non-literary texts Stepping along the barrel trench-board, often splashing Wretchedly where the sludge was ankle-deep Siegfried Sassoon, A working Party Literary texts often make extensive use of sound iconicity. The above extract is taken from a First World War poem which describes a group of soldiers in the trenches. Think about the poet’s use of sound in the context in which the lines were written.

  25. Sassoon uses sound to mirror the scene in the trenches. Repetition of the plosive sounds /p/ and /b/ mirror the thudding of the soldiers’ boots on the trench boards. A repeated set of consonant sounds for effect is called consonance. The initial consonant patterning of vowel sounds – long and short mirror the actions of the soldiers – as the sounds get shorter it becomes more frantic. The loner vowel sounds paint the picture f the soldiers walking morel slowly in the sludge. A repeated set of vowel sounds is known as assonance. Fricative and affricate sounds ‘s’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’ and ‘j’ mimic the sound of mud and water in the trench – these types of repeated fricative sounds are also known as sibilance. Some sound patterns rely on lexical onomatopoeia where there is a clear association between the sound of a word and its meaning. E.g. the word ‘sludge’ works on our ability to draw an association between the sounds and the messiness of the mud. Non-lexical onomatopoeia create a similar effect using ‘non-words’ to signify meaning. E.g. brrm to signify the sound of a car.

  26. Prosodic Features Variation in pitch and intonation Variation in volume Variation in speed

  27. The Two Ronnies - Four Candles

  28. Phonology in jokes Joke rely on sound patterns for effect. The notoriously bad jokes that appear in Christmas crackers use a range of strategies to create comic effects. You can find examples on the website ‘pun of the day’. These jokes use phonological manipulation. Does anyone know any funny jokes?

  29. I keep reading the Lord of the Rings over and over. I guess it’s just a force of hobbit. The joke works here through a process of substitution, ‘hobbit’ for ‘habit’, with one phoneme /ɒ/ replacing the /æ/ to make a different word. The hobbit is associated with Lord of the Rings. This combined with the fixed expression ‘force of habit’ produces the joke. The use of minimal pairs helps to create the joke. This is where words differ in only one single sound.

  30. Phonology in tabloid newspapers Look at the articles in you newspaper. Can you fid any examples of phonological devices?