Level 2 Safeguarding Training for Schools Child Sexual Exploitation (CSE) Jo Barclay, Safeguarding Manager for Schools and Early Years September 2019
What is Child Sexual Exploitation? Activity One: What words come to mind when thinking about CSE?
Definition of Child Sexual Exploitation Child sexual exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity (a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or (b) for the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator. The victim may have been sexually exploited even if the sexual activity appears consensual. Child sexual exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur through the use of technology. (HMG, 2017)
What is Child Sexual Exploitation? Activity Two: Sally’s Story
Common Questions…. • Why don’t they talk about it? • Why do they go back to their abusers? • Why are they difficult to engage?
This is an essential element in the grooming process and ongoing exploitation of young people. The child is encouraged to break away from some or all of their support groups including peers, family and school. The perpetrator/s take control of the victim by replacing the support structures with him/herself In some cases a dependency is created through drugs or alcohol though it does not have to be material it could be emotional and can include threats and violence against the family and young person, blackmail and exposure to the authorities. Power and Control
Exchange Receipt of something for performing sexual acts on others or others performing sexual acts on them Again, this may be material or emotional and may involve creating a dependency on drugs or alcohol Mobile phones are common as they help the perpetrator maintain contact and enable control of the victim as well as being a value/fashion item
Limited choice • The victim may feel they have limited choice due to vulnerability, social and economic dependencies • The victim may feel that the situation they are in is better than the alternative • Often the young person does not see themselves as a victim
Who can be exploited? • However, we need to be aware of the following groups as nationally and locally they are under-represented in data for those in contact with CSE services. • Boys and young men • Young people with learning disabilities & physical • disabilities
Boys and young men The risk of boys becoming victims of sexual exploitation by both male and female offenders is underestimated and less well understood than those relating to girls and young women. • Boys and young men also face additional barriers to disclosing their experience because they may be coerced into engaging in heterosexual and homosexual sexual activity (even though they are heterosexual) as part of their abuse and may be worried they will not be believed, or be perceived as being gay when they are not.
Making someone feel cared for, giving someone affection, building an emotional connection and trust with someone for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The grooming process can be over a long period of time or can happen quickly. Grooming techniques can also be used on those associated with a victim in order to support access to that victim. Many victims do not recognise manipulative techniques used by the perpetrator. What is grooming?
Know the signs … Children and young people who are victims of sexual exploitation often do not recognise they are being exploited. However, there are a number of signs that could indicate a child is being abused. Emotional and behavioural development • Changes in temperament or suffering from depression, mood swings or changes in emotional wellbeing. • Secretive behaviour. • Getting involved in petty crime such as shoplifting or stealing. • Being absent and truanting, lack of interest and frequent poor behaviour.
Identity Appearing with unexplained gifts or new possessions. Change in appearance. Changes to family and social relationships Going missing for periods of time or regularly returning home late. Involvement in exploitative relationships or association with risky adults. Children or young people seen entering or leaving vehicles driven by unknown adults. Becoming detached from age-related activities and social groups. Being sexually active. Receiving phone calls and/or text messages from unknown adults. Know the signs …
Know the signs … • Health • Evidence of drug, alcohol and/or substance use. Abusers may use drugs and alcohol to help control children and young people. • Unexplained physical injuries; for example, bruising suggestive of either physical or sexual assault. • Recurring sexually-transmitted infections. • Pregnancy or seeking an abortion. • Displaying inappropriate sexual behaviour, such as being overfamiliar with strangers or sending sexual images via the internet or mobile phones.
Know the signs … Activity Three: Who in a child’s world might spot these signs? How might you identify some of these signs?
Know the signs … Activity Four: I Didn’t Know Video
Models of CSE • Older Boyfriend/girlfriend • Inappropriate relationships • Online • Gangs and groups • Organised/networked and trafficking model • Peer on peer
Older boyfriend / girlfriend This model involves the befriending and grooming of a child or young person by an older adult. This grooming process often revolves around the child and young person’s vulnerabilities and building the child or young person to believe that they are in a loving relationship. The young person may then be passed to other known adults to the ‘boyfriend’/ ‘girlfriend’ merging into the gang or organised network models.
Inappropriate relationships This usually involves one perpetrator who has inappropriate power or control over a young person, such as being physically older, stronger or wealthier or in a position of power e.g. teacher or community leader. This person will be having some form of a sexual relationship with the young person.
Online Children and young people are subject to many risks when they are accessing on-line activities and this includes the risk of sexual exploitation. This can include adults and peers deceiving and exploiting children and young people into producing sexual images of themselves, engaging in sexual chat online or sexual activity over a webcam.
Gangs and groups Sexual exploitation can occur through gangs and groups; this can be through gang initiation rituals, threats of violence and bullying, or as a punishment for crossing gang areas for example. Females can be found to be exploited through ‘honey trapping’, whereby a woman is tasked to infiltrate another gang through sexual advances. Young males may be forced to have sex with older women or women of similar ages in order to prove masculinity or with adult males as a form of punishment.
Organised / networked and trafficking model This model includes the sex trafficking of children and young people across international borders as well as across internal borders. It can include the moving of children and young people between houses or hotels within the same town/district, for the purposes of passing children and young people to and amongst one or more sexual perpetrators.
Peer on peer Sexual exploitation can happen amongst young people of a similar age, and is often referred to as ‘sexual bullying’ (Children’s Society, 2015). Some young people will befriend other young people and make them believe they are in a loving ‘relationship’ or ‘friendship’, they are then coerced into having sex with friends or associates. Peer on peer model can sometimes be related to ‘gangs and group activity’.
What factors increase a child’s vulnerability to CSE? ACTIVITY FIVE: What might increase a child’s vulnerability to someone wanting to exploit them?
Vulnerability factors: • These include children or young people who: • Go missing, especially on regular occasions from home, education or care. • Live in a chaotic or dysfunctional family. • Have a history of abuse (including child sexual abuse, risk of forced marriage, risk of honour-based violence, physical and emotional abuse and neglect). • Have experienced or are experiencing problematic parenting. • Are young carers within the family unit. • Experience social exclusion as a result of poverty
Vulnerability factors: • Have experienced recent bereavement or loss. • Have unsupervised use of social networking chat rooms/sites. • Have mental ill health. • Have social or learning difficulties. • Have low self-esteem or self-confidence. • Are unsure about their sexual orientation or are unable to confide in their family about their sexual orientation. • Misuse alcohol and/or drugs. • Have been or are excluded from mainstream education. • Are involved in gang activity.
Vulnerability factors: • Do not have friends in the same age group. • Are being bullied. • Live in care, foster care, hostels and/or bed and breakfast accommodation – particularly when living out of their home area, or are homeless • Have associations with gangs through relatives, peers or intimate relationships. • Live in a gang neighbourhood. • Children from loving and secure homes can also be victims of sexual exploitation. The characteristics common to all victims are not always their age, ethnicity, disability or sexual orientation, but their powerlessness and vulnerability
Sally is 14 years old and has been living at Care View for 3 months. She is a streetwise young woman who from day one has been a persistent absconder. She chooses to associate with older friends in the town centre where she drinks alcohol and uses drugs. She refuses to engage with staff and take guidance believing, as always, that she knows best. Sally is known to be sexually active and is promiscuous. She says she has had sex with 7 different partners in the past month. She has already been treated for Chlamydia but she doesn’t seem to care about the impact on her health. We think she is prostituting herself to get money for drugs and new clothes and she is certainly materialistic. Sally is a negative influence on the other young people and often involves younger residents in her inappropriate activities.
Sally is 14 years old and has been living at Care View for 3 months. From day one we have been concerned about her going missing and she is thought to be a very vulnerable child. Sally is known to be spending time with older men in the town centre and is drinking alcohol and using drugs. This increases her vulnerability. Staff are working hard to engage Sally but at the moment she cannot accept our help and support. Sally is sexually active and we believe she is having sex with a number of older men. Sally has been treated for Chlamydia and we are concerned about her sexual health and well-being. Sally often has money and new clothes which she cannot explain and we feel that she is at risk of, or already being abused through child sexual exploitation. Sally often takes younger residents off with her and we are worried that she is being coerced into introducing other children to the abusers.
Consent • The age of consent for sex in the UK is 16 years. • A child under 13 does not have legal capacity to consent to any form of sexual activity – Statutory rape if sexual activity is penetrative • Any sexual activity with a consenting child under the age of 16, is unlawful • All children (including 16 and 17 year olds) cannot consent to their own abuse, therefore 16 and 17 year olds can be victims of child sexual abuse.
Parents as secondary victims 69% of professionals reported that parents feel disempowered by agency involvement. 44% of professionals believe that in most cases parents are in part responsible for the sexual exploitation of their child. 80% of professionals think that some types of families are more likely than others to be affected by CSE – this rises to 90% of police. (Are Parents in the Picture? Parents Against Child Exploitation 2013) Think about how we can support parents with this issue – how could we better educate them?
Essex Arrangements, what to do if you have concerns … One page document outlining the arrangements for working with young people at risk of or experiencing CSE including sharing intelligence with Essex Police can be found on ESCB website. Directory of services that can support children and their families can be found via ESCB website or through contacting the Family Operations Hub Concerns about the welfare of a child or for advice and guidance contact Family Operations Hub on 0345 603 7627 Submitting CSE information and intelligence to Essex Police – Essex Partner Information Submission Form and SET CSE Risk and Vulnerabilities Assessment on the ESCB website.
Working with young people • Child/young person-centered approach • Indirect/informal approaches and uses of resources • (including those around healthy relationships, e-safety etc) • Patience and timing • Asking the right questions • Building trust gradually • Providing practical support • Continuity and accessibility • Persistence!
SUPPORTING SCHOOLS AROUND CSE • NATIONAL WORKING GROUP • GOLD MEMBERSHIP (Apply via ESCB website, learning & development pages, CSE) • CSE RESPONSE UNIT • ESCB CSE BULLETIN Online bulletin (quarterly) Accessible through ESCB website CSE / Professional pages.
SUPPORTING SCHOOLS AROUND CSE • ESCB Key Stage 2 Lesson Plans: • Relationships • Online Safety • Talking about Feelings • ‘I Didn’t Know’ Pledge • ESCB Key Stage 3 Lesson Plans: • Exploring Relationships • CSE Risks On and Off Line • The Grooming Line • Consent • Creating Your School Pledge
SUPPORTING SCHOOLS AROUND CSE • Training options for school staff • NWG CSE Awareness E-learning • SET CSE Toolbox Online Training • CSE Basic Awareness Package • Missing Children Basic Awareness Package • NWG Gold Membership – subsidised training available: • Advanced & Foundation Training Packages • Gang awareness Training • Missing & Return Interviews Training • National Referral Mechanism • Specialist area training & conferences • Training options for school CSE Champion • CSE Champion Forums & bulletin updates
SUPPORTING SCHOOLS AROUND CSE • ESCB Website – CSE pages • Getting Help – range of organisations (national and local) • Professionals • Children & Families Consultation Line. • SET CSE Toolbox • SET CSE risk and vulnerabilities assessment • SET Risk Management Plan • Regular updates through Schools Safeguarding Forum • I Didn’t Know CSE Campaign Resources
SUPPORTING SCHOOLS AROUND CSE • CARE project (The Children’s Society): secondary age pupils (11 -17 years) providing group work for up to 10 young people. Help young people to increase knowledge of child exploitation, protective factors and resilience, and lower the risk of child exploitation • Having Fun or Losing Control, The Involvement Team (Family Operations, ECC): pupils aged 13+ where there is an identified risk of CSE. Peer led programme, it has been developed using nationally recognised CSE training materials with young people • Blurred Lines, The Involvement Team (Family Operations, ECC) 1 Day Workshop, delivered to boys and young men 13+ where there is an identified risk of CSE.
SUPPORTING SCHOOLS AROUND CSE • Choices and 121 work, The Involvement Team (Family Operations, ECC) 6 week programme (small groups or 121). Choices group work for 13yrs+ • Essex Youth Service (ECC) Programme/work must be commissioned by the school. The Essex youth service CSE programmes are planned to suit the schools individually required needs (cost dependent on programme). • Crucial Crew (delivered in some Districts in Essex) Year 6 pupils an interactive way that teaches personal safety. • www.railwaychildren.org.uk/schoolresources
SUPPORTING SCHOOLS AROUND CSE • Risk Avert Secondary-age pupils (primary age programme being developed for later 2017). Risk-Avert identifies young people vulnerable to multiple risk-taking behaviours and offers universal and targeted intervention. • Essex Fire & Rescue Service Cyber Safety programme to year 6 pupils, covers: • Online grooming • Cyber Bullying • CEOP • Sharing inappropriate material • Identity theft
I Didn’t Know… CSE Campaign Collaboration between Essex Police, Essex, Southend, & Thurrock Local Safeguarding Children Boards. www.essex.police.uk/CSE • Campaign website provides access to posters / leaflets / taxi stickers / videos. • Helpful pages for practitioners / CYP / parents / businesses and communities / getting help. ESCB website www.escb.co.uk supports the campaign and provides additional information on practitioners pages detailing the local Essex Arrangements to tackle CSE.