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# 2.8 Implicit Differentiation

2.8 Implicit Differentiation. Definition. We will say that a given equation in x and y defines the function f implicitly if the graph of y = f(x) coincides with a portion of the graph of the equation. Example: The equation implicitly defines functions.

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## 2.8 Implicit Differentiation

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1. 2.8 Implicit Differentiation Definition. We will say that a given equation in x and y defines the function f implicitly if the graph of y = f(x) coincides with a portion of the graph of the equation. • Example: • The equation implicitly defines functions • The equation implicitly defines the functions

2. Two differentiable methods There are two methods to differentiate the functions defined implicitly by the equation. For example: One way is to rewrite this equation as , from which it follows that

3. Two differentiable methods The other method is to differentiate both sides of the equation before solving for y in terms of x, treating y as a differentiable function of x. The method is called implicit differentiation. With this approach we obtain Since ,

4. Implicit Differentiation

5. Example Example: Use implicit differentiation to find dy / dx if Solution:

6. Example Example: Find dy / dx if Solution:

7. 2.10 Logarithmic Functions

8. Logarithm Function with Base a

9. Natural Logarithm Function Logarithms with base e and base 10 are so important in applications that Calculators have special keys for them. logex is written as lnx log10x is written as logx The function y=lnx is called the natural logarithm function, and y=logx is Often called the common logarithm function.

10. Properties of Logarithms

11. Properties of ax and logax

12. Derivative of the Natural Logarithm Function Note: Example: Solution:

13. Example Example: Solution:

14. Derivatives of au Note that Example:

15. Derivatives of logau Note that Example:

16. The Number e as a Limit

17. 2.11 Inverse Trigonometric Functions The six basic trigonometric functions are not one-to-one (their values Repeat periodically). However, we can restrict their domains to intervals on which they are one-to-one.

18. Six Inverse Trigonometric Functions Since the restricted functions are now one-to-one, they have inverse, which we denoted by These equations are read “y equals the arcsine of x” or y equals arcsin x” and so on. Caution: The -1 in the expressions for the inverse means “inverse.” It does Not mean reciprocal. The reciprocal of sinx is (sinx)-1=1/sinx=cscx.

19. Derivative of y = sin-1x Example: Find dy/dx if Solution:

20. Derivative of y = tan-1x Example: Find dy/dx if Solution:

21. Derivative of y = sec-1x Example: Find dy/dx if Solution:

22. Derivative of the other Three There is a much easier way to find the other three inverse trigonometric Functions-arccosine, arccotantent, and arccosecant, due to the following Identities: It follows easily that the derivatives of the inverse cofunctions are the negatives of the derivatives of the corresponding inverse functions.

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