An eye for an eye … • In an attempt to deal with lawlessness, people were carrying enforcement of laws and punishment too far. (in O.T. times) • “An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth…” NOT to increase punishment, but to LIMIT punishment. ONLY an eye for an eye, NOT an ARM for a loaf of bread! • The punishment must fit the crime.
Protestant Version vs. Catholic Version Protestant version divides 1st commandment into two: • Put God before all • No false gods • And combines last two into one: • Do not covet.
No false gods. Don’t use God’s name in vain. Keep Sabbath Honor parents Don’t kill 6, No Adultery 7. Don’t steal 8. Don’t lie about another (give false witness). 9. Don’t covet neighbor’s wife. 10. Don’t covet neighbor’s goods. 10 Commandments (Catholic Version)
One God No false gods Don’t use God’s name in vain Keep Sabbath Honor Parents Don’t kill No adultery Don’t steal Don’t give false witness (lie about another) Don’t covet: another’s wife or goods Protestant 10 Commandments
OLD TESTAMENT Implies “henotheism” rather than monotheism Many Gods were worshipped Place “Yahweh” above all the others. NEW TESTAMENT Prioritize Values Be true to our deepest beliefs Can even apply to an atheist! Respect the “things” of God as well. 1. I am the Lord your God, you shall place no other Gods before Me.
OLD TESTAMENT Believed to invoke divine power which had powerful effects. Acceptable to use in cursing true enemies. NEW TESTAMENT Have respect for God’s name. Avoid words that offend. (Words have MEANING!) Mean what you say! 2. You shall not take God’s name in vain.
OLD TESTAMENT Sabbath (Shabbat) = sundown Friday through sundown Saturday. (“seventh”) Day God “rested” NEW TESTAMENT Sabbath = Sunday (The day Jesus rose from the dead). Sunday Mass Take time for God 3. Keep the Sabbath Day holy.
OLD TESTAMENT The Israelites were nomads Patriarchs were leaders of tribe or clan. Needed to maintain civilization NEW TESTAMENT Honor includes: respect affection gratitude and commitment to grow in love within the family. 4.Honor your mother and father.
OLD TESTAMENT Kill = murder (unjustifiable homicide) One could kill in self-defense. NEW TESTAMENT Could also include: murder, suicide, euthanasia, war, abortion, hostage taking, kidnapping, terrorism, etc. ALSO INCLUDES: Killing spiritually or emotionally through anger. 5. You shall not kill.
OLD TESTAMENT Matter of “justice” Violated “property rights.” (women property of husband) NEW TESTAMENT Commitment to the marriage by both parties. Physical AND EMOTIONAL fidelity. 6. You shall not commit adultery.
OLD TESTAMENT Taking other’s property. Especially -- the stealing of people! (kidnapping) NEW TESTAMENT Taking property. Also: not to cheat, or damage another’s property AND: To be good caretakers (earth, animals, etc.) 7. You shall not steal.
OLD TESTAMENT Critical to the Hebrew’s legal system: 2 people testifying against someone could put them to death NEW TESTAMENT Perjury is wrong. Also against: dishonesty in general, gossip, slander, spreading rumors, etc. Respect for: reputation, privacy, and personal freedom 8. You shall not give false witness against your neighbor.
OLD TESTAMENT Like the 7th commandment, it is a matter of “justice.” NEW TESTAMENT Respect for the love/relationship in this marriage. Rejects: moral permissiveness or an “anything goes” attitude. 9. You shall not covet your neighbor’s spouse.
OLD TESTAMENT Stealing property, other than a neighbor’s spouse. NEW TESTAMENT Against attitudes of: a. greed b. putting money above other values c. jealousy Not resenting the good fortune of others. 10. You shall not covet your neighbor’s goods.
“The commandments, ‘You shall not commit adultery; You shall not murder; You shall not steal; You shall not covet’ and any other commandment, are summed up in this, ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’”Romans 13:9
Explain the difference between the Protestant version and the Catholic version of the 10 Commandments. What number is the commandment to respect your parents In the Catholic version In the Protestant version Why do we say that the first commandment implies that the Israelites were henotheistic rather than monotheistic. (define both terms in your answer). What is the Old Testament meaning of the 5th Commandment. (Catholic version) What is the New Testament meaning of the 5th commandment? What was the attitude toward women in Old Testament times? Name 2 traditions we have today, connected to marriage, that shows this (#6) ancient belief toward women? Why was breaking the 8th commandment in OT times even more serious than it might be considered today? Quiz